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Articles by J. Okpuzor
Total Records ( 14 ) for J. Okpuzor
  H.A. Ogbunugafor , V.I. Okochi , J. Okpuzor , O.S. Odesanmi and F.J. Ebigwe
  Bioassay guided-fractionation of Mitragyna ciliata Aubrev and Pellegr (Rubiaceae) ethanolic root extract at 100 mg kg-1 in T. brucei infected rats indicated that the bioactive constituent reside is present in the butanol fraction (inhibition = 66.61%). In vitro investigation of the extract revealed that it had low (25.55%) antioxidative property. Chemical analysis of the active fraction showed that it consists of alkaloids. The extract`s fraction had no effect on the heamatological profile of treated rats which remained consistent with the major characteristics of trypanosomiasis-anaemia, leucocytopaenia and thrombocytopaenia. Results of the in vivo evaluation of calcium concentration showed a significant difference (p<0.05), between the active butanol fraction (2.53 ± 0.036 mmol L-1) and the untreated/infected (17.79 ± 0.034 mmol L-1). A correlation existed between calcium concentration and parasiteamia in the active fraction (r = 0.40, p = 0.488) and the infected/untreated (r = -0.60, p = 0.29). These observations suggest that the active agent had an effect on the calcium metabolism in the animals which was deleterious to the parasites.
  A.M. Oloyede , J. Okpuzor , O. Omidiji and H.O.C. Mbagwu
  An herbal cocktail comprising of seeds, stem and leaves of seven African plants extensively used in South-Western Nigeria for the management and treatment of inflammation and tumor of the breast was investigated for analgesic and anti-inflammation activities. The analgesic properties of the ethanol extract was investigated using three in vivo mice test models (mice constriction, hot-plate and formalin-induced pain test) while anti-inflammatory activities of the same were evaluated using the Carageenan and egg albumin-induced oedema test systems in vivo. Present findings indicated that the cocktail at a concentration of 400-1600 mg kg- produced significant inhibition (p<0.05) response in both phases of the formalin pain model. The acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction also showed a dose dependent pain inhibition pattern directly related to the amount of extract administered. Instructively, the extract exhibited higher analgesic activity than acetylsalicylic acid but lower than morphine (2 mg kg-). The cocktail (400-1600 mg kg-) exhibited anti-inflammatory activity but inhibition observed at 1600 mg kg- in the 5 and 6 h was very significant. It compared favourably with the reference drug (Indomethacin 10 mg kg-). Consequently, it is our suggestion that the cocktail may possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.
  O. Iroanya , J. Okpuzor and H. Mbagwu
  A polyherbal decoction prepared with Gongronema latifolia, Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina leaves was evaluated for analgesic and anti inflammatory activities using rats and mice. Three doses of the decoction (2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 g kg-1) were administered to the test animals to evaluate analgesic and anti inflammatory activities using the test models of formalin-induced pain, mouse writhing, hot plate, carrageenan and xylene induced oedema. Acute toxicity studies showed that the extract may be considered non toxic as no mortality was observed even at the high doses of 16 g kg-1 p.o. and 2.5 g kg-1 i.p. In the hot plate assay, the decoction caused a significant pain inhibition of 138.5% (12.4±1.9) which is comparable with 180.8% produced by morphine. The decoction, at 8.0 g kg-1 b.wt., significantly inhibited writhing by 138.5% (12.4±1.9) when compared to that of control. A dose-dependent decrease in licking time and frequency in rats injected with 1% formalin was observed. The highest dose of the decoction exhibited a significant inhibition of 46% (42±5.4) while acetylsalicylic acid also produced a significant inhibition of 49% (39.6±2.9) for the formalin induced pain assay. The decoction also significantly (p<0.05) reduced carrageenan and xylene induced oedema. These results suggest that the polyherbal decoction which is used as a tonic in folk medicine has the potential to reduce pain and inflammation and is also, non toxic.
  J. Okpuzor , H. Ogbunugafor and G.K. Kareem
  Globimetula braunii used in Nigerian traditional medicine for managing various diseases was investigated for its antioxidant properties in adult Swiss albino rats. The pulverized plant material was extracted in 80% methanol using Soxhlet apparatus and fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. The crude and ethyl acetate fractions were evaluated for their effects on activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), gluthathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), lipid peroxidation and triacylglycerol levels in rats treated orally with a daily dose of 200 mg kg-1 for 14 days. Results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction caused a significant increase (p<0.05) in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels, while the level of triacylglycerol decreased (p<0.05) compared to control. HPLC analysis showed that the crude and ethyl acetate fractions showed phenolic compounds, apigenin and naringin but only naringin was present in the ethyl acetate fraction. It is likely that endogenous Naringin may be acting in vivo both as an antioxidant and a pro-oxidant in normal albino rats.
  A.M. Oloyede , J. Okpuzor and O.O. Aina
  To investigated the polyherbal formula (Joloo) for its antimalarial and anti-pyretic properties on mice and rats. In the antimalarial study mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei using three doses (1600, 800 and 400 mg kg-1 b.wt.). Pyrexia was induced in the rats by the administration of 10 mg kg-1 b.wt., of 2,4-Dinitrophenol intraperitoneally while measurement was by inserting a clinical thermometer into their anal cavities for about 2 min. Chloroquine and acetylsalicylic acid were used as reference drugs in mice and rats respectively, while water served as control for both. The antiplasmodial study involved two phases; the suppressive where mice were administered plant extract per os for four days immediately after inoculation and blood smear prepared on the fifth day and the curative phases where mice were inoculated with parasites three days before administration of extract so as to allow for full development of parasites. They were administered the extract orally for five consecutive days and blood smears prepared during the period of administration and five days post administration. During the 5-days suppressive study, the herbal formulation (Joloo) showed significant daily dose-dependent decrease in parasitaemia and compared favourably with the reference drug (Chloroquine). It was observed however that the 1600 and 800 mg achieved a total 100% chemosuppression of parasitaemia, while 400 mg kg-1 b.wt. dose was 44.5%. During the curative study, there was significant dose-dependent decrease in parasitaemia during the 5-days period of administration and subsequent increase in parasitaemia in the remaining 5-days post administration. In both suppressive and curative assays, chloroquine achieved 100% chemosuppression while Joloo achieved 100% chemosuppression in the suppressive assay. Besides, Joloo inhibited parasitaemia only during administration in the curative study after which a progressive increase in parasitaemia was observed during post-administration. In the anti-pyretic study, Joloo significantly reduced hyperthermia in rats dose-dependently. This clearly suggests that Joloo contain biologically active substances with the potential of managing and treating malaria and fever. It provides scientific evidence to support the isolation and development of biologically active components as anti-malarial and antipyretic agents.
  A.M. Oloyede , J. Okpuzor and O.O. Omidiji
  Joloo is a traditional herbal formulation used in the management of tumour of the breast in southwestern Nigeria. The acute and subchronic toxicity studies of Joloo have been reported previously but the chronic toxicity has not been investigated. The study was undertaken to evaluate the long-term toxic effect of Joloo on mice. Ethanolic extract of Joloo was administered to four groups of mice weighing 27.5±1.4 (N = 10/group) Repeated doses (400, 800 and 1600 mg kg-1 b.wt.) were administered orally for 91 days. Parameters observed include, body and relative organ weights, haematology, biochemical analysis, antioxidant activities and histologic studies. There were no adverse effects on the general condition, body and relative organ weight, red blood cells and white blood cell. However there were significant increase in leucocytes, GPx, CAT and SOD at 800 and 1600 mg kg-1 b.wt. The histoarchitecture of the liver, heart and the spleen revealed slight alteration (mild necrosis) and there was dose-dependent though insignificant increase in some of the biochemical analytes (ALT and AST) at 1600 mg kg-1 b.wt. Based on these findings it can be inferred that Joloo is devoid of toxicity at 400 and 800 mg kg-1 b.wt. and possess strong antioxidant activities, whereas high dose (1600 mg kg-1 b.wt.) may be associated with some toxicity concerns.
  A. Oloyede , J. Okpuzor and O. Omidiji
  The cytological and toxicological potentials of an ethanol extract of a decoction used in South Western Nigeria for the management of breast tumors were evaluated using mice and Allium cepa models. The oral administration of the extract to the mice within the range of 400-1600 mg kg-1 b. wt., dosage did not result in any mortality until 2000 mg kg-1 body weight (b. wt.), when 60% mortality occurred. The LD50 of the extract administered intraperitoneally, was 400 mg kg-1 b. wt. Furthermore, the extract induced macroscopic and microscopic changes causing a dose-related root growth inhibition and chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa. The effect of the extract was more pronounced at 1600 mg kg-1, dose while the EC50 was at 380 mg after 72 h. This decoction may present cytological and toxicological potential for managing breast tumors and corroborates its use in ethno medicine.
  J. Okpuzor , V.I. Okochi , H.A. Ogbunugafor , S. Ogbonnia , T. Fagbayi and C. Obidiegwu
  An analysis of twenty one assorted brands of vegetable oils in Lagos Metropolis Nigeria, reveals varying levels of cholesterol content. Cholesterol was found to be present in most of the oil brands sampled using three standard methods. Cholesterol was detected in seventeen of the vegetable oil brands with concentration of less than 1 mg/ml while seven of the oil brands had cholesterol concentrations ranging between 1-4 mg/ml. Low iodine values were obtained in four of the vegetable oil brands and three of them had high acid values. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) confirmed the presence of cholesterol at varying concentrations in all the oil brands and gave the lowest detectable cholesterol values in all the oil brands. The Laser brand made from rapeseed had the highest cholesterol concentration of 3.2 mg/ml while Grand brand made from groundnuts had the least concentration (0.12 mg/ml) of cholesterol using HPLC analysis. Leibermann-Burchard method showed that Gino brand from palm kernel had the least concentration of cholesterol (3.86 mg/ml ±0.032) and the highest concentration of 3.996 mg/ml ±0.0404 was obtained in Sesame seed oil brand. This report is important in view of health implications of cholesterol in our diets. Consequently, we have been able to show that there is no cholesterol free oil in the market as shown on the vegetable oil brand labels. Therefore, companies producing and marketing vegetable oils are enjoined to desist from misleading the public by labeling their products as “cholesterol free”. They should indicate the amount of cholesterol present in the vegetable oil, no matter how small the quantity may be.
  H.A. Ogbunugafor , F.U. Eneh , A.N. Ozumba , M.N. Igwo-Ezikpe , J. Okpuzor , I.O. Igwilo , S.O. Adenekan and O.A. Onyekwelu
  Oil was extracted from Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) seeds collected from Enugu, South-East Nigeria and evaluate its physico-chemical and antioxidant properties in comparism to palm oil. M. oleifera seeds gave oil yield of 41.47%. Refractive index, melting point (oC) and acid value (mg KOH g-1) of M. oleifera oil were 1.471±0.00, 28±0.00, 3.80±0.28 while palm oil had 1.473±0.00, 31±0.00, 6.20±0.35 respectively. Similarly, iodine (I2 100 g-1), saponification (mg KOH g-1) and peroxide (mMol kg-1) values obtained for M. oleifera oil were 85.30±0.25, 171.90±0.56 and 8.10±0.07 whereas palm oil had 34.70±0.13, 210.50±0.00 and 13.40±0.28 respectively. Total phenol (mg Gallic Acid Equivalent g-1), total flavonoids (mg Rutin Equivalent g-1) and total antioxidant capacity (mg Ascorbic Acid Equivalent g-1) were 40.17±0.01, 18.24±0.01, 37.94±0.02 for M. oleifera oil and 62.32±0.04, 33.13±0.03, 68.27±0.02 for palm oil respectively. M. oleifera oil and palm oil showed a concentration dependent DPPH free radical scavenging and reducing power capabilities. This study has shown that Moringa Oleifera gave high oil yield, which has good antioxidant capacity with potential for industrial, nutritional and health applications, therefore large scale cultivation of this economic plant could be used as poverty alleviation strategy in Nigeria.
  M.N. Igwo-Ezikpe , O.G. Gbenle , M.O. Ilori , J. Okpuzor and A.A. Osuntoki
  Bacteria isolated from various contaminated soils in Nigeria were investigated for their potential to utilize and biodegrade high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which include chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Biochemical and morphological studies identified the isolates as Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Pseudomonas putida. Biodegradation studies showed that Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp. and P. putida degraded 100 mg L-1 chrysene to 30.5±0.3, 40.6±0.7 and 17.2±0.2 mg L-1, respectively after 8 days of incubation. Similarly, fluoranthene was degraded to 2.0±0.1, 2.0±0.4 and 0.12±0.1 mg L-1 while pyrene to 0.16±0.2, 6.5±0.3 and 6.6±0.4 mg L-1 correspondingly. Consortium of the isolates degraded 100 mg L-1 chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene, respectively to 21.3±0.9, 2.2±0.8 and 10.6±0.8 mg L-1. In the presence of phenanthrene as co-substrate, chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene were, respectively degraded by consortium to 12.4±0.5, 0.2±0.3 and 0.7±0.2 mg L-1 while phenanthrene was undetectable. This study showed that there was delayed degradation of chrysene and fluoranthene in the presence of phenanthrene, this may account for the persistence of these compounds in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons polluted sites. This is the first report on the potential of these isolates simultaneous utilization and biodegradation of chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene when used as sole carbon and energy source.
  M.N. Igwo-Ezikpe , O.G. Gbenle , M.O. Ilori , J. Okpuzor and A.A. Osuntoki
  The experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of tropical bacterial isolates and its consortium to biodegrade mixture of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene). The effect of phenanthrene in the degradation was also investigated. The bacterial consortium was made up of Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp. and P. putida and biodegradation set up for 8 days with initial 100 mg L-1 substrate concentration. Degradation by Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp. and P. putida, respectively after 8 days gave higher residual chrysene of 40.2±1.4, 40.3±2.2 and 27.4±1.8 mg L-1, fluoranthene of 32.5±1.3, 35.4±1.2 and 10.1±2.5 mg L-1 and pyrene of 37.5±1.2, 34.2±2.4 and 32.0±1.2 mg L-1 compared to 11.5±1.4 (chrysene), 6.2±1.3 (fluoranthene) and 6.0±1.8 (pyrene) mg L-1 obtained using the bacterial consortium. When the media was supplemented with 100 mg L-1 phenanthrene, after 8 days of degradation by bacterial consortium residual chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene was 0.45±0.25, 0.02±0.02 and 0.20±0.14 mg L-1, respectively while phenanthrene was undetectable. No statistical significant (p < 0.05) difference was obtained between degradation by bacterial consortium and consortium via co-metabolism with phenanthrene rather they had a strong correlation of r = 0.99. The results suggest that bacterial consortium may be useful for the decontamination of sites polluted with high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons due to synergistic effect.
  M.N. Igwo-Ezikpe , O.G. Gbenle , M.O. Ilori , J. Okpuzor and A.A. Osuntoki
  Alcaligenes faecalis was evaluated for its potential to degrade varying concentrations of chrysene and diesel oil with concomitant biosurfactant production. Biodegradation was set up for 7 days utilizing the substrates as sole carbon and energy sources. Residual chrysene obtained after degradation of 30, 50 and 100 mg L-1, respectively was 17.4±1.5, 27.2±1.2 and 28.7±1.4 mg L-1 while total petroleum hydrocarbon remaining after degradation of 3, 5, 15 and 30% (v/v) diesel oil respectively was 2.58±0.5, 3.09±1.2, 21.65±5.4 and 63.92±8.1%. Microbial cells of A. faecalis and sterilized cell-free extract from diesel oil media showed emulsifying activities against kerosene, diesel oil, engine oil, hexadecane, dodecane, xylene and hexane whereas no emulsifying activity was observed of microbial cells and sterilized cell-free extract from chrysene media. Alcaligenes faecalis cells harvested from diesel oil media also showed haemolytic activity unlike the microbial cells from chrysene media. Growth of the isolate in chrysene and diesel oil media induced secretion of protein and carbohydrate into the media which were statistically significantly (p<0.05) different compared to controls. This study portrays the potential of Alcaligenes faecalis to degrade and grow on chrysene and diesel oil and induce extracellular protein and carbohydrate with concomitant production of biosurfactant for industrial purposes and in hydrocarbon bioremediation.
  J. Okpuzor , G. Kareem and C. Ejikeme
  Extract of Globimetula braunii in different solvent systems were evaluated for possible lipid and blood pressure lowering activities using in vivo and in vitro experimental methods. Dried Globimentula brauni leaves were pulverized into powder and successively extracted with methanol, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water using hot extraction methods. Normal male adult albino rats were administered a dosage of 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. of the extracts for a period of 14 days and the level of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol and lipid peroxidation were monitored. The crude extract of Globimetula braunii was analyzed for some antihypertensive substances using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results obtained, showed that different fractions of the extract caused significant (p<0.05) decrease in serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels. HPLC elution profile showed that the crude extract contained substances similar to some known antihypertensive drugs like propanalol, lisinopril, moduretic and nifidipine and the lisinopril-like compound seems to be the most abundant by having the highest concentration. Thus, the data from this study suggests that Globimetula braunii extract contains some biologically active substances that may lower blood pressure and serum lipids.
  T. Yahaya , J. Okpuzor and T. Ajayi
  The bio-protective efficacy of medicinal plants on cells, organs and systems of animals living in industrial societies were assessed. The prophylactic efficacy of Roselle, Moringa, Ginger, Ugwu and their mixture on the hematology and serum protein of albino rats exposed to cement dust were evaluated. Albino rats, grouped into six comprising ten rats per group, were exposed to cement dust at about 200 m from a cement factory. The control group (group 1) was given distilled water, while the test groups (groups 2-6) were given extracts of Roselle, Moringa, Ginger, Ugwu and the mixture of their extracts, respectively. The rats had access to pellet feeds and water ad libitum and were monitored daily for 180 days. The hematology and blood serum analysis of the test rats showed significant (p<0.05) healthy conditions of the packed cell volume, hemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells and serum protein compared to the control rats. Furthermore, the blood of the control rats had time-dependent microcytosis, macrocytosis, anisocytosis, hypochromasia, lymphocytosis and eosinophilia. However, the blood of the test rats showed normal to mild anemic conditions observed in the control rats. The results of the study highlight the efficacy and effectiveness of medicinal plants in disease prevention and control. It also calls for various governments’ participation in medicinal plant research by way of funding.
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