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Articles by J. Nouri
Total Records ( 11 ) for J. Nouri
  A. Azadeh , J. Nouri and I. Mohammad Fam
  The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of total system design factors (TSD) on human performance in a power plant. The TSD factors are defined as design factors, which have impact on overall performance of the power plants in context of total human engineering or macroergonomy. The systems being studied are the control rooms and maintenance departments of a 2000 MW thermal power plant? To achieve the above objective the TSD factors were addressed and assessed through a detailed questionnaire. The relationships between TSD factors and human performance were then examined through non-parametric correlation analysis (Kramer’s Phi) and Kruskal-Wallis test of means. The selected TSD factors are related to procedures, work assessment, teamwork, self-organization, information exchange and communication. The results of this study show that the TSD factors such as organizational and safety procedures, teamwork, self-organization, job design and information exchange influence human performance in the power plant. The findings also suggest that the selected TSD factors are correlated to human performance and must be considered, designed and tested concurrently with the engineering factors at the design phase of the system developmental cycle. Consequently, total system’s faults and organizational errors are reduced to an acceptable level and human performance is significantly increased. This is a challenging task for designers of power plants but is required if we are to face unforeseen and complex issues of such systems in twenty-first century. The methodology discussed here may be easily extended to all types of power plants.
  J. Nouri , H. Rahimipour and R. Nezakati
  Chitgar artificial lake, located in urban District-22 Municipality of Tehran northwest of Tehran, Iran is by volume l0 million cubic meter (MCM), by depth average 10 meter (m.) and by area 225 hectares (ha) as the Iran’s largest man-made lake. The most important water resources of district, which can support the lake water, are Kan River, municipal runoff, the middle part watersheds runoff and the treated wastewater of urban region. In this study the way to take water from each resource individually or some of them together have been discussed and twelve different choices of resources to maintain the lake water have been introduced. Thermal stratification is one of the most important parameters that can affect the lake water quality after construction in regard to Tehran climatic conditions. In this research water quality for river and reservoir systems (WQRRS) model has been run to every 12 aforementioned choices individually to predict the probable thermal stratification in the lake for each one. This simulation has been done during a five- year period, which is assumed to be a typical period of time in this study. The needed input data to run the model are quality factors, meteorological data, and geometrical characteristics of the reservoir, the characteristics of inflow and also the needed coefficients for the model. These data have been collected from hydrometric and meteorological stations of the region and also the results of other researches. After running the model the simulation results show that the Kan River, as one of the proposed water resources, has the least difficulties in thermal stratification.
  J. Nouri and S. A. Jozi
  This study is aimed to design a new model for service and civil development application in order to be used in evaluation of Iran ecological capability studies. For this purpose in the first step, the frequency of sustainable and unsustainable ecological factors in Iran was known. In the next step, the Delphi method was used which is itself a branch of phase theory methods. Effective ecological factors priorities and frequency value of each factor were determined by completing 750 questionnaires for desired branches (Delphi group). Questionnaire data were analyzed using software SPSS 11.0. After designing, model was introduced to geographical information system using Arcinfo program. Model sensitive analysis test was done with the purpose to determine the level of sensibility in favorable replies against the specific changes in target function with the simplex method using Lingo software. This model is used in evaluation of ecological capability at the time of ecological resources analysis in the field under examination and after the preparation of environmental unit maps. Indeed environmental unit map is considered as a base map in ecological capability evaluation in this study. To asses the capabilities of the new method, ecological capability of District 22, Municipality of Tehran was evaluated as a case study and service and civil development application map was prepared using Arc-view GIS 3.2a program. Results of the studies on this section, according to the new method, the points given in environmental units vary from zero to sixty-five. There are restricting factors such as some environmental units along river path, fold passage and hilly areas, which hinder these units from getting service and civil development application.
  J. Nouri and B. Maghsoudlou Kamali
  The present investigation deals with the quality of capacity building and institutional strengthening of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in the industrial sector as well as determining the environmental strategies for industrial sustainable development in Iran. The leading aim of this paper has been to systematize the environmental considerations in industrial development strategies, policies, plans and programs in the highest strategic decision making processes and to ensure environmental considerations and alternatives together with other economic and social considerations in the procedures, before the research processes. In order to analysis of Iran,s industrial development strategies, a matrix method was used as one of the most practical techniques of strategic programing as; SWOT (strenghts, weaknesses, opportunities and threats). Eventually the result of SWOT analysis in the form of a cell 29*12 matrix, has been an indicative of the degree of need toward performing SEA in conection with the kinds of the country,s industrial strategies in a categorizing priorities system. As among all the industrial strategic policies, have been screened and evaluated 8 strategies in the first priority and 4 strategies in the second priority.The industrial strategies with the first priority require; the emphasis on new industries, supporting and encouraging of the exports, privatization, competative industrial growth, commercial discharging, attracting the foreign direct investments, developing energy oriented industries and priorities of industrial fields strategies.Industrial strategies also require SEA in the second priority including: supporting the small and medium industries,considering the indexes of industrial potentiality measurement,following demands for establishing industrial workshops from spatial development system and developing legal, institutional and physical structures strategies.The basis of the results of this study is achieving and realizing the conditions of environmental quality sustainability and industrial development sustainability in Iran calls for policy making and tremendous and strategic decision making on the basis of these strategies in the framework of SEA methodology and in the pre-research phase(policies, plans and programs) as well as performing EIA projects.
  J. Nouri and S. Malmasi
  Groundwater resources in most places of Iran are considered to be one of the important drinking water supplies for civilians. In city of Tehran, 25% of drinking water is being supplied from groundwater. This fact would enforce the requirement to protect and conserve groundwater resources in the city for its further development plan. Municipality of Tehran, District-22 has been designed for the latest and the ultimate development boundary of the city, which is being constructed in the north-west part of the city. The groundwater resources of the District are considered as main drinking water supplier for its future short term population. Hence due to the importance of groundwater of the District, the vulnerability to nitrate contaminant is being examined by means of Drastic Model. The results obtained, indicate that due to regional environmental characteristics, vulnerability index varies in different parts of studied area. so the eastern and south eastern parts of the District have experienced the highest vulnerability. Besides comparing the results with nitrate concentration reveals that correlation has been approximately 61% and among the drastic layers, precipitation layer has been determined as the most effective parameters for final drastic index layer of studied area. In this regard, concerning the vulnerability map, urban land application, including residential and commercial in mentioned parts should be prohibited.
  J. Nouri , A. H. Mahvi , M. Younesian , R. Nabizadeh and I. Hashemi
  At this study, an environmental impact assessment establishment of Shahzand Industrial Estate in Arak at the central part of Iran was investigated. After collection of data and analysis of the findings, the positive and negative impacts resulted from establishment of the industrial estate were investigated, using the Leopold Matrix and Scaling checklist methods providing the managerial solutions in order to minimize the environmental harmful impacts. The existing environmental situation was investigated and then environmental impact alternatives were determined. This was done regarding to the amount and kind of predicted pollutions for industrial estate at the construction and operational phases. The environmental impact assessment of the investigated estate was studied at the three terms of immediate, direct and indirect impacts at the short, medium and long term. By expanding of Leopold Matrix to four parted matrix, in addition to amount, importance and extend of the impacts, the remaining duration of impact in the environment were assessed as a separate factor in environmental impact assessment. The results of the study with two alternatives, such as; No (performance of the project with no concern for environmental issue) and as yes (performance of the project with application of the environmental harmful impacts) were studied in construction and operation phases. The impact assessment of "NO" property resulted (-1065), therefore the execution of project was rejected, but after reducing the harmful impact performance which were resulted (+1095) has been accepted. Therefore, method of reducing harmful environmental impacts along with environmental management programs introduced and accepted in this study.
  K. Naddafi , J. Nouri , R. Nabizadeh and N. Shahbod
  This paper studies the various resources (water, energy, paper) as well as other wastes consumption management at the National Library of Iran in Tehran. After setting the targets and specifying the correct management framework of resources consumption through the green management schedule, the resources analysis in consumption pattern in National Library of Iran was set up. Some attempt plans were performed to find out management solutions to the related issues. For the achievement of this aim, the first step was considered the study of general conditions of the Library through several visits, completing the checklists and questionnaires and then gathering the necessary information and analyzing them. The results of the fuel consumption in transportations related to the National Library showed that the major pollutants produced by the transportation were CO2, CO, NOx, and hydrocarbons. The rate of CO2 had a maximum level of 904 Kg and CO was 6 Kg, NOx was 2 Kg and hydrocarbons were 0.58 Kg. Among the equipments, which use energy in the Library, refrigerators produce the levels of CO2, SO2 and NOx .The total level of CO2, SO2 and NOx produced by all the equipments were 1140.32 Kg, 3.9072 kg and 2.886 Kg respectively. The results of water investigations showed that the total water consumption was 45459 L/year and the greater part of it was related to irrigation of the garden in the courtyard which was equal to 32471 L/year. Regarding to the wastes, the results of 30 times sampling showed the highest level to be related to aluminum and paper and a computer analysis revealed these results in the rates of 19745 Kg/year of CO2, 77.54 Kg/year, SO2 57.4Kg/year NOx and particulate matter was 2.92 Kg/year. Following the investigations carried out in management, executive solutions were suggested which led to the conclusion that the Green Management System should be established at this organization which should result in optimum consumption of resources such as water, power and paper in the National Library of Iran with considerable cost reduction.
  A. Behbahaninia , S. A. Mirbagheri and J. Nouri
  Heavy metals accumulation in soils under the application of sewage sludge and effluent from wastewater treatment plants is a major environmental concern. Transport of heavy metals through the soils may eventually lead to the groundwater contamination and their accumulation in soils and crops. Silt loam soils covered by sludge and effluent of Tehran wastewater treatment plant were used in this study. The vertical and horizontal distributions of sludge-borne Cd, Cr, Zn, Pb, Fe, Cu and Ni were studied within four plots. Measured loadings of heavy metals to the plots from the sludge application were Fe, 284.75, Pb, 90.28, Zn, 109.5, Ni, 60.28,Cu, 27.76 Cr, 28.58 and Cd, 4.5 mg/kg. Two hundred and forty soil samples were taken from areas within the plots and up to 100 cm depth on each side of the plots. Leachate water from the plots which contaminates groundwater was collected and the concentrations of heavy metals were measured. The determined concentration of sludge-borne in leachate Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cu and Cd were 0.803, 0.785, 0.532, 0.439, 0.110, 0.180 and 0.019 mg/l respectively. The results of this study can be used for the management of effluent and sewage application in agricultural lands and crop production. The groundwater quality can be monitored and improved as well.
  J. Nouri , A.H. Mahvi , A.A. Babaei , G.R. Jahed and E. Ahmadpour
  The objective of this study was to evaluate and map regional patterns of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn) occurrence in south of Iran. The study was performed in Shush and Andimeshk plains in the south part of Iran, with high agricultural activities that cover an area of 1100 km2 between the Dez and Karkhe rivers. This region was divided into four sub-regions A, B, C and D. Additionally 168 groundwater samples were collected from 42 water wells during the months April, May, August and September of 2004. The Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS-Flame) was used to measure the heavy metals concentration in water samples. The results demonstrated that all of the samples, Cu, Zn and Ni concentrations have been shown below the EPA MCLG, EPA secondary standard and EPA MCL, respectively, but Cd, contents of 4.8% of all samples was higher than EPA MCL. The heavy metals concentration is more pronounced in south part than northern part of the studied area. Absent confining layers, proximity to land surface, excess agricultural and industrial activities in south part and groundwater flow direction that is generally from north to south parts in this area makes south region of Shush plain especially vulnerable to heavy metals pollution and other contaminants.
  J. Nouri and S.A. Jozi
  The goal underlying the process of evaluating ecological capability of district 22 of Tehran as the main part of west and north west of Tehran is to realize the potential capability of land within practical application to achieve communication and interaction between human activities, society and the land potential to gain land preparation. To do so, in first place, an area of 5700 hectares, as district 22, was specified, maps of sustainable ecological resources (including physiography, type of soil, type and density of vegetation, geology and petrology) and unsustainable resources (including maps for water resources, wild life habitats) were prepared. On second stage the maps of land form units by using geographic information system (GIS) were provided by the over laying maps of slope, direction and elevation level. The environmental unit maps were prepared by overlapping the soil type and vegetation maps. In the next stage the ecological models of different stratum the environmental information included in the tables were adjusted, coded and were then confirmed with the ecological models of land applications in Iran and the ecological models of different classes of application were prepared for district 22 through a mathematical model and subsequently, the maps of application classes via GIS was prepared. The findings of the ecological potentials of district 22 shows that except the hillside parts, the region has potential classification 2 for urban development. For an outdoor recreation, the entire region is in class 1 (suitable) and has first and second potential for indoor recreation. For agriculture and animal husbandry the region has the potential 5 and only in a part of the region due to depth of the soil, it has potential 4 for agricultural and animal husbandry development. The region has potential 4 for supported woods application, the reason of this figure is low amount of water reserve and special physiography of the region.
  J. Nouri , H. Rahimipour and R. Nezkati
  According to the natural and man-made environment of Tehran and based on governmental approval, the largest artificial lake located in far northwest of Great Tehran and into the new made District-22 of Tehran Municipality is being designed. This region with an area of about 10000 ha has been planned as a last connectual limitation of Tehrran. Overflow of the Kan and the Vardavrd Rivers such as the one in 1969 in the Kan-Sologhan region and some other purposes like providing a recreational place to attract tourists and making the weather fresh and humid specially in dry seasons turn out to be the reasons for proposing the construction of an artificial lake. The lake is planned with an area of about 225 ha and 11 million cubic meters volume. The Kan and the Vardavard Rivers, the middle part watershed basins runoff, groundwater, municipal runoff and the waste water of Ekbatan treatment plant are the most important water resources in the area. Annual flow of these resources together is about 120 million cubic meters and there is the possibility of taking 40 million cubic meters of this flow to provide the lake water.To indentify the water quality of resources samples were taken, analysed and statistics of hydrometric stations in the region have been assessed. Comparison between these results and standards proved that the Kan and the Vardavard Rivers, groundwaters and the middle part watershed basins runoff have the highest quality. In Ekbatan treatment plant waste water and municipal runoff total coliform is 1.1x104 MPN 100 ml–1 and 2.2x1029 MPN 100 ml–1, respectively which is higher than standards and inappropriate to provide the lake water.
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