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Articles by J. M. M. Evans
Total Records ( 2 ) for J. M. M. Evans
  K. N. Barnett , S. A. Ogston , M. E. T. McMurdo , A. D. Morris and J. M. M. Evans
  Aims  To determine absolute and relative risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among patients newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes.

Methods  In an observational cohort study using record-linkage databases, based in Tayside, Scotland, UK, we identified newly diagnosed patients with Type 2 diabetes in 1993-2004. We also identified a set of non-diabetic comparators from lists of patients registered with a general practice, individually matched to the diabetic patients by sex, age and deprivation. We followed up patients for mortality and cardiovascular mortality over a 12-year period and calculated hazard ratios using Cox regression.

Results  There were 10 532 patients with Type 2 diabetes and 21 056 non-diabetic comparators. Diabetic patients in every age/sex group had higher absolute mortality rates. Even taking deprivation into account, the hazard ratio for mortality was 1.32 (95% CI 1.25-1.40), decreasing to 1.15 (1.09-1.22) after adjusting for pre-existing cardiovascular disease. The hazard ratios for cardiovascular mortality were higher, decreasing from 1.51 (1.37-1.67) to 1.23 (1.11-1.36) after adjusting for pre-existing cardiovascular disease. The hazard ratios decreased with increasing age at diagnosis, although the difference in absolute rate of mortality increased slightly with age. Increased mortality risks were only evident 2 years after diagnosis and increased thereafter.

Conclusions  Patients with Type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared with non-diabetic comparators, although this is not observable immediately after diagnosis. Age at diagnosis and duration of the disease independently affect absolute and relative mortality risk.

  J. M. M. Evans , D. Mackison , A. Emslie-Smith and J. Lawton
  Aim  To characterize the numbers of reagent strips dispensed for self-monitoring of blood glucose to patients with Type 2 diabetes in Tayside, Scotland, in 1993, 1999 and 2009.

Methods  A diabetes clinical information system in Tayside, record-linked to electronic dispensed prescribing records, was used to collate all dispensed prescribing records for three cross-sectional samples of patients with Type 2 diabetes in 1993 (n = 5728), 1999 (n = 8109) and at 1 January 2009 (n = 16 450). The numbers of reagent strips dispensed during the relevant calendar year were calculated and patients stratified by treatment. We also explored whether age, sex or material and social deprivation were associated with whether a patient received strips.

Results  Proportions of people who received self-monitoring reagent strips increased from 15.5% in 1993, to 24.2% in 1999 to 29.8% in 2009, as did numbers of strips dispensed. While the proportion of diet-treated patients who received reagent strips was still very low in 2009 (5.6%), the proportion among those treated with oral agents tripled from 9.4 to 27.4% between 1993 and 2009. Over 90% of patients treated with insulin received reagent strips and, among non-insulin-treated patients, this was more common among women, younger people and less deprived groups.

Conclusions  The numbers of reagent strips dispensed for self-monitoring of blood glucose has increased and almost all insulin-treated patients receive strips. While few diet-treated patients receive strips, they are more extensively dispensed to those treated with oral agents. Given that self-monitoring of blood glucose is no longer routinely recommended in non-insulin treated patients, strategies to reduce unnecessary dispensing of reagent strips are needed.

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