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Articles by J. Li
Total Records ( 14 ) for J. Li
  S.K. Chou , W.M. Yang , J. Li and Z.W. Li
  The micro combustor is the key component of the micro TPV power generator. To obtain high power density and performance efficiency, it is important for a micro combustor to achieve a high and uniform temperature distribution along the wall. In this paper, we compare the performance of a micro cylindrical combustor with and without employing porous media. Results indicate that packing the combustor with porous media can significantly enhance the heat transfer between the high temperature combustion products and the emitter wall. The use of porous media increases the contact area thereby increasing the temperature along the wall of the micro combustor resulting in an increase in its radiation energy. The effects of some parameters on radiation energy of the micro combustor are also highlighted.
  A. Ogdie , J. Li , L. Dai , M. E. Paessler , X. Yu , C. Diaz-Torne , M. Akmatov , H. R. Schumacher and F. Pessler
  Immunohistochemical synovial tissue biomarkers are used increasingly to classify arthropathies, study their pathogenesis, and to measure disease activity in clinical trials. We have used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to quantify the discriminatory abilities of markers for common inflammatory cells (subintimal CD15, CD68, CD3, CD20, CD38, and lining CD68), proliferating cells (Ki-67) and blood vessels (von Willebrand factor, vWF) among inflammatory (chronic septic arthritis, early arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)) and degenerative arthropathies (osteoarthritis (OA) and orthopedic arthropathies) and normal synovium. Six of the eight markers distinguished accurately between RA and the degenerative arthropathies (area under the curve (AUC) 0.91–0.97), whereas subintimal CD68 (AUC 0.92) and Ki-67 (AUC 0.87) distinguished best between OA and normal synovium. Fold differences in mean expression correlated only modestly with AUCs (r2 = 0.44). Multicategory ROC analysis ranked Ki-67, subintimal CD68, and CD15 as discriminating best among all six sample groups, and thus identified them as the most broadly applicable markers.
  I Katona , X Wu , S. M. E Feely , S Sottile , C. E Siskind , L. J Miller , M. E Shy and J. Li
 

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is caused by a 1.4 Mb duplication on chromosome 17p11.2, which contains the peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) gene. Increased levels of PMP22 in compact myelin of peripheral nerves have been demonstrated and presumed to cause the phenotype of CMT1A. The objective of the present study was to determine whether an extra copy of the PMP22 gene in CMT1A disrupts the normally coordinated expression of PMP22 protein in peripheral nerve myelin and to evaluate PMP22 over-expression in patients with CMT1A and determine whether levels of PMP22 are molecular markers of disease severity. PMP22 expression was measured by taking skin biopsies from patients with CMT1A (n = 20) and both healthy controls (n = 7) and patients with Hereditary Neuropathy with liability to Pressure Palsies (HNPP) (n = 6), in which patients have only a single copy of PMP22. Immunological electron microscopy was performed on the skin biopsies to quantify PMP22 expression in compact myelin. Similar biopsies were analysed by real time PCR to measure PMP22 mRNA levels. Results were also correlated with impairment in CMT1A, as measured by the validated CMT Neuropathy Score. Most, but not all patients with CMT1A, had elevated PMP22 levels in myelin compared with the controls. The levels of PMP22 in CMT1A were highly variable, but not in HNPP or the controls. However, there was no correlation between neurological disabilities and the level of over-expression of PMP22 protein or mRNA in patients with CMT1A. The extra copy of PMP22 in CMT1A results in disruption of the tightly regulated expression of PMP22. Thus, variability of PMP22 levels, rather than absolute level of PMP22, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of CMT1A.

  M. A Saporta , I Katona , R. A Lewis , S Masse , M. E Shy and J. Li
 

Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A is the most common inherited neuropathy and is caused by duplication of chromosome 17p11.2 containing the peripheral myelin protein-22 gene. This disease is characterized by uniform slowing of conduction velocities and secondary axonal loss, which are in contrast with non-uniform slowing of conduction velocities in acquired demyelinating disorders, such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Mechanisms responsible for the slowed conduction velocities and axonal loss in Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A are poorly understood, in part because of the difficulty in obtaining nerve samples from patients, due to the invasive nature of nerve biopsies. We have utilized glabrous skin biopsies, a minimally invasive procedure, to evaluate these issues systematically in patients with Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (n = 32), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (n = 4) and healthy controls (n = 12). Morphology and molecular architecture of dermal myelinated nerve fibres were examined using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Internodal length was uniformly shortened in patients with Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A, compared with those in normal controls (P < 0.0001). Segmental demyelination was absent in the Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A group, but identifiable in all patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Axonal loss was measurable using the density of Meissner corpuscles and associated with an accumulation of intra-axonal mitochondria. Our study demonstrates that skin biopsy can reveal pathological and molecular architectural changes that distinguish inherited from acquired demyelinating neuropathies. Uniformly shortened internodal length in Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A suggests a potential developmental defect of internodal lengthening. Intra-axonal accumulation of mitochondria provides new insights into the pathogenesis of axonal degeneration in Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A.

  B. von Katterfeld , J. Li , B. McNamara and A. T. Langridge
  Aims  To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes for Australian-born women with gestational diabetes mellitus with those of culturally and linguistically diverse and non-culturally and linguistically diverse foreign-born women with gestational diabetes.

Methods  A total of 205 616 singleton births in Western Australia between 1998 and 2006 were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Risks of ten maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with gestational diabetes were compared for pregnancies with gestational diabetes to foreign-born women from both culturally and linguistically diverse and non-culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds vs. Australian-born women. The same outcomes were also compared for pregnancies without gestational diabetes.

Results  Foreign-born culturally and linguistically diverse women were more likely to undergo emergency Caesarean section, but less likely to have pre-eclampsia, an elective Caesarean section or induced labour than Australian-born women. Their infants were less likely to be large for gestational age, require resuscitation or be transferred to specialist care. These differences were also evident among pregnancies without gestational diabetes to culturally and linguistically diverse women, but did not exist between foreign-born non-culturally and linguistically diverse women and Australian-born women with gestational diabetes.

Conclusions  While gestational diabetes places women and infants at increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, these outcomes differed for foreign-born women from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds when compared with Australian-born women. Further investigation is required to elucidate why being foreign-born and culturally and linguistically diverse reduces the risk of several of these outcomes.

  T. Pazynyuk , G.S. Oreku and J. Li
  The present study proposes a set of security provisions for node to base station communication in wireless sensor networks. The Distributed Signature Scheme (DSS) is another important security service which will enables sensor nodes to communicate securely. A key-management scheme designed to satisfy both operational and security requirements of Distributed Sensor Networks (DSS) is presented. The scheme includes selective distribution and revocation of keys to sensor nodes as well as node re-keying without substantial computation and communication capabilities. The presentation describes a secret distribution scheme for sensor networks that achieves automatic secret redistribution. The goal is to support the distribution of secret key among new nodes members joining the network without involving a trusted agent or intervention from the user. Present analysis indicates that, the proposed schemes have better features compared with previously presented methods. In particular the system is efficient, second, it guarantees automatic key distribution after initializations, third it does not need urgent for key distribution and in additional, it automatically interact nodes coalition.
  G.L. Jiang , G.L. Zhang , S.X. Sun , J. Li , H.J. Xie , D. Chen and M.Y. Tu
  Loquats (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) have formed different ecological types in various zones during the long course of their cultivation and acclimatization. The data of biological responses and ecological suitability was very important for loquat plantation in different eco-zones. In this study, we evaluated the growth and development characters, flowering and fruiting habits and fruit quality of loquat in three diverse ecotypes of Sichuan by field survey. The results showed that in mid-subtropical damp and heat ecotype, the loquat trees grew vigorously and young shoots sprouted four times annually. The flower buds were mainly originated from the Summer shoots and the flowering stage most centered from September to December. In addition, a rapid growth stage of fruits was observed from March to April and fruit quality was fine in May. In Southern subtropical dry and hot eco-zone, young shoots might be developed four or five times annually. Flowering and fruiting could occur several times a year as the development differences of Spring and Summer shoots with flower buds differentiation without trees treatments. In the valley of Southern temperate warm and dry ecotype, the phenophase of loquat were late about 20 to 30 days. The loquat fruits were mainly originated from Summer flowerings and mature at June with more than 15% soluble solids, super quality and nice appearance. These results obtained from comprehensive investigation would provide valuable information for techniques of cultivation in distinctive ecotypes and facilitated the economic plantation for loquats in the diverse eco-zones of the world.
  C.Y. Liu , R.L. Zhang , M.X. Chen , J. Li , L. Ai , C.Y. Wu , X.Q. Zhu and R.Q. Lin
  The present study examined sequence variations in the Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) among Angiostrongylus cantonensis isolates from Shenzhen, Qingyuan, Jiangmen and Wenzhou in China. The ITS of nuclear rDNA was amplified from individual A. cantonensis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and the representative amplicons were cloned and sequenced. The length of the ITS sequences was 1593-1614 bp for all Chinese A. cantonensis specimens and these sequences were composed of complete ITS-1 sequence of 712-720 bp, complete 5.8 S sequence of 153 bp, complete ITS-2 sequence of 633-650 bp and partial 28 S sequence of 70 bp. The intra-specifc sequence variation in A. cantonensis was 0.1-1.0% for ITS-1 and 0.0-1.3% for ITS-2 whereas sequence comparison revealed that the inter-specifc sequence differences were higher: 15.0-34.6% for ITS-1 and 22.7-24.2% for ITS-2 between A. cantonensis and other Angiostrongylus sp. The results showed that the ITS sequences were conserved among the A. cantonensis isolates however, they were quite different from that of other Angiostrongylus species. Therefore, ITS sequences could provide useful genetic markers for the specific identification and genetic characterization of Angiostrongylus sp.
  F. Chen , J. Li , H. Sugiyama , Y.B. Weng , F.C. Zou , R.Q. Lin , Z.G. Yuan , H.Q. Song , X.Q. Zhu and G.H. Zhao
  In the present study, a portion of the 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences of 35 Schistosoma japonicum isolates representing three geographical strains from mainland China, the Philippines and Japan were amplified and compared and phylogenetic relationships were also reconstructed by Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic averages (UPGMA) using combined 18S and 28S rDNA sequences as well as the corresponding sequences of other species belonging to the Schistosoma genus available in the public database. The results indicated that the partial 18S and 28S rDNA sequences of all S. japonicum isolates were 745 and 618 bp, respectively and displayed low genetic variation among S. japonicum strains and isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the combined 18S and 28S rDNA sequences were not able to distinguish S. japonicum isolates from three geographical origins but provided an effective molecular marker for the inter-species phylogenetic analysis and differential identification of different Schistosoma species.
  X.Q. Jing , Y.Q. Zhao , C.C. Shang , Y.L. Yao , T.T. Tian , J. Li and D.K. Chen
  Interleukin-17 is a critical pro-inflammatory cytokine in the development of autoimmunity and the immune responses against infection of bacteria, fungus and parasites. In the present study, dynamics of IL-17 and cytokines associated with IL-17 producing in serum and milk in experimental mastitis challenged with S. aureus and E. coli in dairy goats were monitored using commercial ELISA kits. The results showed that the levels of IL-17 in milk were peaked at 24 or 48 h post challenged with E. coli or S. aureus, respectively but no detectable peak was found in serum. The levels of TGF-β, IL-6 and IL-1β in milk were elevated in goats challenged with E. coli or S. aureus but only slight fluctuant were found in serum. These indicated that IL-17 was an important cytokine in the inflammation development of dairy goat mastitis challenged with E. coli or S. aureus and the local pro-inflammatory cytokines milieu plays an important role in the development of subclinical mastitis whether infected with E. coli or S. aureus.
  Y.H. Chu , J.X. Chen , L. Ai , Y.C. Cai , Y.L. , J. Li , G.S. He and S.H. Chen
  Cryptosporidiosis is an important gastrointestinal disease in snakes. In the current study, 143 feces samples of cobra snakes and Oriental rat-snake were examined for the presence of cryptosporidia by morphology and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Method targeting a part of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. A consecutive sequencing reaction was used to identify the cryptosporidian species present in PCR-positive samples. The oocyst of Cryptosporidium serpentis was found in 19 out of 143 (13.29%). The results stress the importance for diagnostic methods to be specific for Cryptosporidium species especially in snakes.
  B Kang , H Wang , K. H Nam , J Li and J. Li
 

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are important plant hormones that act synergistically with auxin to regulate a variety of plant developmental and physiological processes. In the past decade, genetic and biochemical studies have revealed a linear signaling pathway that relies on protein phosphorylation to transmit the BR signal into the nucleus, altering expression of hundreds of genes to promote plant growth. We conducted an activation-tagging based suppressor screen to look for Arabidopsis genes that, when overexpressed by inserted 35S enhancer elements, could suppress the dwarf phenotype of a weak BR receptor mutant bri1-301. This screen identified a total of six dominant activation-tagged bri1 suppressors (atbs-Ds). Using a plasmid rescue approach, we discovered that the bri1-301 suppression effect in four atbs-D mutants (atbs3-D to atbs6-D) was caused by overexpression of a YUCCA gene thought to be involved in tryptophan-dependent auxin biosynthesis. Interestingly, the three activation-tagged YUCCA genes belong to the YUCCA IIA subfamily that includes two other members out of 11 known Arabidopsis YUCCA genes. In addition, our molecular studies revealed a T-DNA insertion near a basic helix-loop-helix gene in atbs1-D and a T-DNA insertion in a region carrying a BR biosynthetic gene in atbs2-D. Further studies of these atbs-D mutants could lead to better understanding of the BR signaling process and the BR–auxin interaction.

  N von Numers , M Survila , M Aalto , M Batoux , P Heino , E. T Palva and J. Li
 

EFR is a plasma-membrane resident receptor responsible for recognition of microbial elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and thus triggering plant innate immunity to fend off phytopathogens. Functional EFR must be subject to the endoplasmic reticulum quality control (ERQC) machinery for the correct folding and proper assembly in order to reach its final destination. Genetic studies have demonstrated that ERD2b, a counterpart of the yeast or mammalian HDEL receptor ERD2 for retaining proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen, is required for EFR function in plants (Li et al., 2009). In this study, we characterized the Arabidopsis glucosidase II β-subunit via the HDEL motif against the non-redundant protein database. Data mining also revealed that the glucosidase II β-subunit gene has a highly similar expression pattern to ERD2b and the other known ERQC components involved in EFR biogenesis. Importantly, the T-DNA insertion lines of the glucosidase II β-subunit gene showed that EFR-controlled responses were substantially reduced or completely blocked in these mutants. The responses include seedling growth inhibition, induction of marker genes, MAP kinase activation, and callose deposition, trigged by peptide elf18, a full mimic of EF-Tu. Taken together, our data indicate a requirement of the glucosidase II β-subunit for EFR function.

  M. Li , G. Ji , F. Feng , W. Song , R. Ling , D. Chen , X. Liu , J. Li , H. Shi , W. Wang and H. Zhang
 

Objective: We summarized our experience of living-related small bowel transplantation and postoperative management of 3 patients with short gut syndrome.

Methods: Patient #1, an 18-year-old boy, received a 150-cm segment of distal ileum with a vascular pedicle of distal superior mesenteric artery and vein, which was donated by his father. Patient #2, a 15-year-old boy, received a 160-cm graft of distal ileum from his mother. Patient #3, a 17-year-old boy, received a 170-cm graft of distal ileum from his father. The graft artery and vein were anastomosed to the recipient infrarenal aorta and vena cava, respectively, in end-to-side fashion using 7/0 Prolene suture. Intestinal continuity was restored by anastomosis of proximal end of the graft to the recipients' own proximal jejunum, the distal end was left open as a stoma. The recipient distal gut was anastomosed to the distal end of the graft. All 3 recipients were given FK506 (tacrolimus) regularly combined with periodic mycophenolate mofetil. In cases of acute rejection, large doses of steroids were administered to the recipients.

Results: The recipients and donors had fairly unremarkable postoperative courses. So far, patient #1 has survived for 7 years and 6 months with a well-functioning graft and without requirement for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) support. His body weight increased 20 kg and of his life quality has dramatically improved. Patient #2, however, died of acute rejection with fatal sepsis at 5 months after transplantation. Patient #3 has survived for 3 years and 8 months enjoying a normal life. Postoperative recovery of all 3 donors was unremarkable. They were discharged 12 days after surgery without complications.

Conclusion: Outcomes of the implantation using the distal ileum as a graft in living-related small bowel transplantation have been satisfactory for both recipients and donors. It is feasible to anastomose the graft artery and vein to the recipient infrarenal aorta and vena cava. The intestinal continuity can be restored by a 1-stage strategy with minimal risk to the recipient. Appropriate application and adjustment of immune suppressors are crucial for the recipients to experience high-quality lives.
 
 
 
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