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Articles by J. Lawton
Total Records ( 9 ) for J. Lawton
  J. Lawton , E. Peel , O. Parry and M. Douglas
  AimsThe aims of this study were to examine Type 2 diabetic patients’ expectations, perceptions and experiences of oral glucose-lowering agents (OGLAs), including their reasons for taking/not taking these drugs as prescribed and to provide recommendations for developing interventions to improve OGLA adherence. MethodsLongitudinal, qualitative study using repeat in-depth interviews with patients (n = 20) over 4 years following clinical diagnosis. Respondents were recruited from primary and secondary care settings across Lothian, Scotland, UK. ResultsDespite experiences of side-effects, dislikes and concerns about taking multiple drugs and a belief that OGLAs could themselves cause one’s diabetes to progress, most respondents appeared motivated to take these drugs as prescribed. This motivation seemed to arise from respondents’ experiences of taking OGLAs and observing them to ‘work’. Some respondents described feeling better after taking OGLAs, others, typically those who were asymptomatic, used blood glucose self-monitoring and/or glycated haemoglobin results to observe and evidence the effects of their OGLAs. Most respondents demonstrated a ‘passive’ expectation that health professionals should be responsible for decisions about medications. Hence, non-adherence typically resulted from forgetfulness rather than ambivalence about either medication or consultation style. Respondent concern about OGLA’s largely centred upon lack of knowledge about the medication and what to do when doses were missed. ConclusionThe findings call for multifaceted strategies to promote adherence. These could include education to address misconceptions and advise patients how to respond to missed doses; reminders to help patients remember to take their drugs; and structured feedback on the impact of OGLAs on glycaemic control.
  D. Rankin , D. D. Cooke , M. Clark , S. Heller , J. Elliott and J. Lawton
  Background  Conventional insulin therapy requires patients with Type 1 diabetes to adhere to rigid dietary and insulin injection practices. Recent trends towards flexible intensive insulin therapy enable patients to match insulin to dietary intake and lifestyle; however, little work has examined patients' experiences of incorporating these practices into real-life contexts. This qualitative longitudinal study explored patients' experiences of using flexible intensive insulin therapy to help inform the development of effective long-term support.

Methods  Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 adult patients with Type 1 diabetes following participation in a structured education programme on using flexible intensive insulin therapy, and 6 and 12 months post-course. Longitudinal data analysis used an inductive, thematic approach.

Results  Patients consistently reported feeling committed to and wanting to sustain flexible intensive insulin therapy. This regimen was seen as a logical and effective method of self-management, as patients experienced improved blood glucose readings and/or reported feeling better. Implementing and sustaining flexible intensive insulin therapy was enhanced when patients had stable routines, with more challenges reported by those working irregular hours and during weekends/holidays. Some patients re-crafted their lives to make this approach work for them; for instance, by creating dietary routines or adjusting dietary choices.

Conclusions  Clinical data have shown that flexible intensive insulin therapy can lead to improvement in glycaemic control. This study, drawing on patients' perspectives, provides further endorsement for flexible intensive insulin therapy by demonstrating patients' liking of, and their motivation to sustain, this approach over time. To help patients implement and sustain flexible intensive insulin therapy, follow-up support should encourage them to identify routines to better integrate this regimen into their lives.

  N. Jenkins , N. Hallowell , A. J. Farmer , R. R. Holman and J. Lawton
  Aim  To explore participants' experiences of intensifying insulin therapy during the Treating to Target in Type 2 Diabetes (4-T) trial.

Methods  In-depth interviews were conducted with 41 trial participants who had had their insulin therapy intensified during this trial. Data were analysed using an inductive, thematic approach.

Results  The vast majority of participants were receptive towards intensifying treatment. Whilst some were happy simply to follow health professionals' recommendations, others saw taking two types of insulin as a more effective way of controlling their diabetes. Post-intensification, participants sought to remember to take their additional injections by developing injection-related strategies and daily routines. The need to inject insulin whilst in public often arose more frequently following intensification and was a consistent source of anxiety. Those who were worried about injecting in public sought to avoid having to do so; for example, by injecting in toilets or by advancing or delaying the timing of their injections.

Conclusions  It was not increasing the number of daily injections per se which was problematic for the participants who had agreed to have their insulin therapies intensified, but the increased likelihood of having to inject insulin in public. Addressing concerns about injecting in public places may help promote adherence to intensified insulin regimens.

  K. Barnard , J. M. A. Sinclair , J. Lawton , A. J. Young and R. I. G. Holt
  Aim  To undertake a narrative review of the impact and pattern of alcohol consumption in young adults with Type 1 diabetes.

Methods  Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, meeting abstracts of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, the American Diabetes Association and Diabetes UK, Current Controlled Trials,, UK Clinical Research Network, scrutiny of bibliographies of retrieved papers and contact with experts in the field. Inclusion criteria: relevant studies of any design of alcohol consumption and young adults with Type 1 diabetes (age 14-25 years) were included. The key outcomes were the quantity, pattern and impact of alcohol consumption, the effect on diabetes control and the effect of interventions to minimize the risks of alcohol for this population.

Results  Six articles and two conference abstracts met the inclusion criteria. There were six cross-sectional studies, one qualitative study and one within-subjects design study. Quality of studies was variable. Alcohol use amongst young adults with Type 1 diabetes was reported to be common and potentially harmful. There was a paucity of evidence on interventions to minimize the risks of alcohol in this target group.

Conclusions  Research is required to understand the social context of alcohol consumption in this population with a view to developing appropriate interventions to minimize the risks associated with its use.

  J. M. M. Evans , D. Mackison , A. Emslie-Smith and J. Lawton
  Aim  To characterize the numbers of reagent strips dispensed for self-monitoring of blood glucose to patients with Type 2 diabetes in Tayside, Scotland, in 1993, 1999 and 2009.

Methods  A diabetes clinical information system in Tayside, record-linked to electronic dispensed prescribing records, was used to collate all dispensed prescribing records for three cross-sectional samples of patients with Type 2 diabetes in 1993 (n = 5728), 1999 (n = 8109) and at 1 January 2009 (n = 16 450). The numbers of reagent strips dispensed during the relevant calendar year were calculated and patients stratified by treatment. We also explored whether age, sex or material and social deprivation were associated with whether a patient received strips.

Results  Proportions of people who received self-monitoring reagent strips increased from 15.5% in 1993, to 24.2% in 1999 to 29.8% in 2009, as did numbers of strips dispensed. While the proportion of diet-treated patients who received reagent strips was still very low in 2009 (5.6%), the proportion among those treated with oral agents tripled from 9.4 to 27.4% between 1993 and 2009. Over 90% of patients treated with insulin received reagent strips and, among non-insulin-treated patients, this was more common among women, younger people and less deprived groups.

Conclusions  The numbers of reagent strips dispensed for self-monitoring of blood glucose has increased and almost all insulin-treated patients receive strips. While few diet-treated patients receive strips, they are more extensively dispensed to those treated with oral agents. Given that self-monitoring of blood glucose is no longer routinely recommended in non-insulin treated patients, strategies to reduce unnecessary dispensing of reagent strips are needed.

  D. Rankin , D. D. Cooke , S. Heller , J. Elliott , S. Amiel and J. Lawton
  Aims  Use of blood glucose targets is considered essential to help patients with Type 1 diabetes achieve tight glycaemic control following structured education. To foster effective use of blood glucose targets, we explored patients' experiences and views of implementing clinically recommended blood glucose targets after attending a structured education programme promoting intensive insulin treatment.

Methods  Repeat, in-depth interviews with 30 patients with Type 1 diabetes recruited from Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) courses in the UK. Data were analysed using an inductive, thematic approach.

Results  Patients found use of blood glucose targets motivational. Targets enabled patients to identify problems with blood glucose control and prompted them to make insulin dose adjustments independently, or with assistance. However, patients tended to adapt or simplify targets over time to: make them more attainable and easy to remember; reduce risk of hypoglycaemia; and, mitigate feelings of failure when attempts to attain clinically defined targets were unsuccessful. Some patients were advised to use elevated targets to counter hypoglycaemia unawareness and required help from health professionals to determine when/if these should be reduced.

Conclusions  Although blood glucose targets are an important component of diabetes self-management, patients may adapt and personalize them over time, sometimes inadvertently, with a potentially detrimental impact on long-term glycaemic control. Blood glucose targets should be regularly revisited during clinical reviews and revised/new targets agreed to accommodate patients' concerns and difficulties. Other interventions may need to be considered to promote effective use of blood glucose targets.

  J. Lawton , D. Rankin , D. D. Cooke , J. Elliott , S. Amiel and S. Heller
  Aims  Despite improvements in insulin therapy, hypoglycaemia remains an inevitable part of life for many people with Type 1 diabetes. Little attention has been paid to how individuals self-treat hypoglycaemia and their likes and dislikes of clinically recommended treatments. We explored participants' experiences of self-treating hypoglycaemia after attending a structured education programme for people with Type 1 diabetes. Our aims were: to identify treatments that are acceptable to people with Type 1 diabetes; and to provide recommendations for promoting self-treatment in line with clinical guidelines.

Methods  Thirty adults with Type 1 diabetes were recruited from the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) programme in the UK. Study participants were interviewed post-course and 6 and 12 months later, enabling their experiences to be explored over time.

Results  Study participants described a poor knowledge of how to self-treat hypoglycaemia correctly pre-course. Post-course, individuals often struggled to adhere to clinically recommended guidelines because of: panic, disorientation, hunger sensations and consequent difficulties ingesting fixed quantities of fast-acting carbohydrate; use of sweets to manage hypoglycaemia; reversion to habituated practices when cognitive impairment as a result of hypoglycaemia supervened; difficulties ingesting dextrose tablets; and other people's anxieties about under-treatment.

Conclusions  Historical experiences of hypoglycaemia and habituated practices can influence present self-treatment approaches. Professionals need to be aware of the range of difficulties individuals may experience restricting themselves to fixed quantities of fast-acting carbohydrate to manage hypoglycaemia. There may be merit in developing a more acceptable range of treatments tailored to people's own preferences, circumstances and needs.

  L. Grant , J. Lawton , D. Hopkins , J. Elliott , S. Lucas , M. Clark , I. MacLellan , M. Davies , S. Heller and D. Cooke


Study aims were to (1) describe and compare the way diabetes structured education courses have evolved in the UK, (2) identify and agree components of course curricula perceived as core across courses and (3) identify and classify self-care behaviours in order to develop a questionnaire assessment tool.


Structured education courses were selected through the Type 1 diabetes education network. Curricula from five courses were examined and nine educators from those courses were interviewed. Transcripts were analysed using framework analysis. Fourteen key stakeholders attended a consensus meeting, to identify and classify Type 1 diabetes self-care behaviours.


Eighty-three courses were identified. Components of course curricula perceived as core by all diabetes educators were: carbohydrate counting and insulin dose adjustment, hypoglycaemia management, group work, goal setting and empowerment, confidence and control. The broad areas of self-management behaviour identified at the consensus meeting were carbohydrate counting and awareness, insulin dose adjustment, self-monitoring of blood glucose, managing hypoglycaemia, managing equipment and injection sites; and accessing health care. Specific self-care behaviours within each area were identified.


Planned future work will develop an updated questionnaire tool to access self-care behaviours. This will enable assessment of the effectiveness of existing structured education programmes at producing desired changes in behaviour. It will also help people with diabetes and their healthcare team identify areas where additional support is needed to initiate or maintain changes in behaviour. Provision of such support may improve glycaemia and reduce diabetes-related complications and severe hypoglycaemia.

  K. D. Barnard , C. E. Lloyd , P. A. Dyson , M. J. Davies , S. O`Neil , K. Naresh , J. Lawton , R. Ziegler and R. I. G. Holt
  National Audit Data highlight persistent sub-optimum control among increasing numbers of people living with diabetes, with severe consequences for the individual and the NHS. The aim of the present review was to introduce a new cohesive, holistic model of care, tailored to individual needs to support optimum diabetes outcomes. This model of diabetes is necessary in order to understand the driving forces behind behaviour and their impact on diabetes management. Feelings (an emotional state or reaction) and beliefs (an acceptance that something is true or real) are fundamental behavioural drivers and influence diabetes self-management choices. Individually, these explain some of the complexities of behaviour and, collectively, they impact on personal motivation (rationale/desire to act) to achieve a specific outcome. Inevitably, they independently affect diabetes self-management and the environment in which individuals live. A model of care that proposes the encompassing of environment, intrinsic thought and therapy regimens to provide tailored, personalized healthcare should support enhanced diabetes self-management and outcomes from diagnosis. The Kaleidoscope model of care could be deliverable in routine care, incorporating each of the influences on diabetes self-management, and should benefit both individuals with diabetes and healthcare professionals.
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