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Articles by J. Kwon
Total Records ( 2 ) for J. Kwon
  H. H Jin , C Shin and J. Kwon
 

Cross-section-view TEM samples of ion-irradiated material are successfully fabricated using a focused ion beam (FIB) system and low-energy Ar ion milling. Ga ion-induced damages in FIB processing are reduced remarkably by the means of low-energy Ar ion milling. There are optimized ion milling conditions for the reduction and removal of the secondary artifacts such as defects and ripples. Incident angles and accelerated voltages are especially more important factors on the preservation of a clean surface far from secondary defects and surface roughing due to Ga and Ar ion bombardment.

  J. Kwon , J. Park , D. Lee , Y.S. Kim and H.J. Jeong
  Toll-like receptor (TLR) is known to be a mediator of innate immunity, but recent reports have shown that TLR provides a link to adaptive immunity involved in allograft rejection. To explore the expression patterns in various conditions of renal transplantation, we examined TLR subunit mRNA expressions in renal allograft biopsies of acute rejection (AR; n = 11), chronic rejection (CR; n = 15), chronic cyclosporine nephrotoxicity (CsAN; n = 22), and immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN; n = 9) patients. Control tissues (n = 7) were obtained from normal renal cortical tissue of renal cell carcinoma patients. The diagnosis was made according to the Banff 97 classification. The expressions of TLR 2, 3, 4, and 9 mRNA were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using SYBR green. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Student t test. TLR 2 and 3 mRNA expressions were not significantly different in any group (P > .05). In contrast, TLR 4 mRNA expression was significantly increased in all allograft groups compared with that of controls, and significantly higher in the CsAN than other transplant groups (P < .05). TLR 9 mRNA expression was up-regulated in CsAN and IgAN compared with AR and CR (P < .05). These results suggested that TLR4 mRNA expression was increased in renal allograft patients with chronic allograft dysfunction. Further studies are needed to correlate TLR subtypes with various causes of graft dysfunction among renal allograft patients.
 
 
 
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