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Articles by J. Elliott
Total Records ( 9 ) for J. Elliott
  D. Rankin , D. D. Cooke , M. Clark , S. Heller , J. Elliott and J. Lawton
  Background  Conventional insulin therapy requires patients with Type 1 diabetes to adhere to rigid dietary and insulin injection practices. Recent trends towards flexible intensive insulin therapy enable patients to match insulin to dietary intake and lifestyle; however, little work has examined patients' experiences of incorporating these practices into real-life contexts. This qualitative longitudinal study explored patients' experiences of using flexible intensive insulin therapy to help inform the development of effective long-term support.

Methods  Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 adult patients with Type 1 diabetes following participation in a structured education programme on using flexible intensive insulin therapy, and 6 and 12 months post-course. Longitudinal data analysis used an inductive, thematic approach.

Results  Patients consistently reported feeling committed to and wanting to sustain flexible intensive insulin therapy. This regimen was seen as a logical and effective method of self-management, as patients experienced improved blood glucose readings and/or reported feeling better. Implementing and sustaining flexible intensive insulin therapy was enhanced when patients had stable routines, with more challenges reported by those working irregular hours and during weekends/holidays. Some patients re-crafted their lives to make this approach work for them; for instance, by creating dietary routines or adjusting dietary choices.

Conclusions  Clinical data have shown that flexible intensive insulin therapy can lead to improvement in glycaemic control. This study, drawing on patients' perspectives, provides further endorsement for flexible intensive insulin therapy by demonstrating patients' liking of, and their motivation to sustain, this approach over time. To help patients implement and sustain flexible intensive insulin therapy, follow-up support should encourage them to identify routines to better integrate this regimen into their lives.

  D. Rankin , D. D. Cooke , S. Heller , J. Elliott , S. Amiel and J. Lawton
  Aims  Use of blood glucose targets is considered essential to help patients with Type 1 diabetes achieve tight glycaemic control following structured education. To foster effective use of blood glucose targets, we explored patients' experiences and views of implementing clinically recommended blood glucose targets after attending a structured education programme promoting intensive insulin treatment.

Methods  Repeat, in-depth interviews with 30 patients with Type 1 diabetes recruited from Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) courses in the UK. Data were analysed using an inductive, thematic approach.

Results  Patients found use of blood glucose targets motivational. Targets enabled patients to identify problems with blood glucose control and prompted them to make insulin dose adjustments independently, or with assistance. However, patients tended to adapt or simplify targets over time to: make them more attainable and easy to remember; reduce risk of hypoglycaemia; and, mitigate feelings of failure when attempts to attain clinically defined targets were unsuccessful. Some patients were advised to use elevated targets to counter hypoglycaemia unawareness and required help from health professionals to determine when/if these should be reduced.

Conclusions  Although blood glucose targets are an important component of diabetes self-management, patients may adapt and personalize them over time, sometimes inadvertently, with a potentially detrimental impact on long-term glycaemic control. Blood glucose targets should be regularly revisited during clinical reviews and revised/new targets agreed to accommodate patients' concerns and difficulties. Other interventions may need to be considered to promote effective use of blood glucose targets.

  V. Young , C. Eiser , B. Johnson , S. Brierley , T. Epton , J. Elliott and S. Heller
  Aims  We report a systematic review to determine (1) prevalence of eating problems compared with peers and (2) the association between eating problems and glycaemic control in young adults with Type 1 diabetes.

Method  We conducted a systematic literature search via electronic databases and meta-analysis. Cohen's d (the mean difference score between Type 1 diabetes and comparison groups) was calculated for 13 studies that met inclusion criteria.

Results  Eating problems [both disordered eating behaviour (39.3 and 32.5%; d = 0.52, 95% CI 0.10-0.94) and eating disorders (7.0 and 2.8%; = 0.46, 95% CI 0.10-0.81)] were more common in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes compared with peers and both were associated with poorer glycaemic control (= 0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.64). In restricted analyses involving measures adapted for diabetes, associations between eating problems and poorer glycaemic control remained (= 0.54, 95% CI 0.32-0.76). Disordered eating behaviour (51.8 and 48.1%; = 0.06, 95% CI −0.05 to 0.21) and eating disorders (6.4 and 3.0%; = 0.43, 95% CI −0.06 to 0.91) were more common in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes compared with peers, but differences were non-significant.

Conclusions  Eating problems are common among this age group. Future work in populations with Type 1 diabetes should develop sensitive measures of eating problems and interventions, and establish predictors of eating problems. Screening in clinics is recommended.

  J. Lawton , D. Rankin , D. D. Cooke , J. Elliott , S. Amiel and S. Heller
  Aims  Despite improvements in insulin therapy, hypoglycaemia remains an inevitable part of life for many people with Type 1 diabetes. Little attention has been paid to how individuals self-treat hypoglycaemia and their likes and dislikes of clinically recommended treatments. We explored participants' experiences of self-treating hypoglycaemia after attending a structured education programme for people with Type 1 diabetes. Our aims were: to identify treatments that are acceptable to people with Type 1 diabetes; and to provide recommendations for promoting self-treatment in line with clinical guidelines.

Methods  Thirty adults with Type 1 diabetes were recruited from the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) programme in the UK. Study participants were interviewed post-course and 6 and 12 months later, enabling their experiences to be explored over time.

Results  Study participants described a poor knowledge of how to self-treat hypoglycaemia correctly pre-course. Post-course, individuals often struggled to adhere to clinically recommended guidelines because of: panic, disorientation, hunger sensations and consequent difficulties ingesting fixed quantities of fast-acting carbohydrate; use of sweets to manage hypoglycaemia; reversion to habituated practices when cognitive impairment as a result of hypoglycaemia supervened; difficulties ingesting dextrose tablets; and other people's anxieties about under-treatment.

Conclusions  Historical experiences of hypoglycaemia and habituated practices can influence present self-treatment approaches. Professionals need to be aware of the range of difficulties individuals may experience restricting themselves to fixed quantities of fast-acting carbohydrate to manage hypoglycaemia. There may be merit in developing a more acceptable range of treatments tailored to people's own preferences, circumstances and needs.

  L. Grant , J. Lawton , D. Hopkins , J. Elliott , S. Lucas , M. Clark , I. MacLellan , M. Davies , S. Heller and D. Cooke
 

Aims

Study aims were to (1) describe and compare the way diabetes structured education courses have evolved in the UK, (2) identify and agree components of course curricula perceived as core across courses and (3) identify and classify self-care behaviours in order to develop a questionnaire assessment tool.

Methods

Structured education courses were selected through the Type 1 diabetes education network. Curricula from five courses were examined and nine educators from those courses were interviewed. Transcripts were analysed using framework analysis. Fourteen key stakeholders attended a consensus meeting, to identify and classify Type 1 diabetes self-care behaviours.

Results

Eighty-three courses were identified. Components of course curricula perceived as core by all diabetes educators were: carbohydrate counting and insulin dose adjustment, hypoglycaemia management, group work, goal setting and empowerment, confidence and control. The broad areas of self-management behaviour identified at the consensus meeting were carbohydrate counting and awareness, insulin dose adjustment, self-monitoring of blood glucose, managing hypoglycaemia, managing equipment and injection sites; and accessing health care. Specific self-care behaviours within each area were identified.

Conclusions

Planned future work will develop an updated questionnaire tool to access self-care behaviours. This will enable assessment of the effectiveness of existing structured education programmes at producing desired changes in behaviour. It will also help people with diabetes and their healthcare team identify areas where additional support is needed to initiate or maintain changes in behaviour. Provision of such support may improve glycaemia and reduce diabetes-related complications and severe hypoglycaemia.

  J. Kruger , A. Brennan , P. Thokala , H. Basarir , R. Jacques , J. Elliott , S. Heller and J. Speight
 

Aims

To estimate the cost-effectiveness of training in flexible intensive insulin therapy [as provided in the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) structured education programme] compared with no training for adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus in the UK using the Sheffield Type 1 Diabetes Policy Model.

Methods

The Sheffield Type 1 Diabetes Policy Model was used to simulate the development of long-term microvascular and macrovascular diabetes-related complications and the occurrence of diabetes-related adverse events in 5000 adults with Type 1 diabetes. Total costs and quality-adjusted life years were estimated from a National Health Service perspective over a lifetime horizon, discounted at a rate of 3.5%. The treatment effectiveness of DAFNE was modelled as a reduction in HbA1c that affected the risk of developing long-term diabetes-related complications. Probabilistic and structural sensitivity analyses were conducted.

Results

DAFNE resulted in greater life expectancy and reduced incidence of some diabetes-related complications compared with no DAFNE. DAFNE was found to generate an average of 0.0294 additional quality-adjusted life years for an additional cost of £426 per patient, leading to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £14 400 compared with no DAFNE. There was a 54% probability that DAFNE would be cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20 000 per quality-adjusted life year.

Conclusions

The results of this study suggest that DAFNE is a cost-effective structured education programme for people with Type 1 diabetes and support its provision by the National Health Service in the UK.

  B. Johnson , J. Elliott , A. Scott , S. Heller and C. Eiser
 

Aim

To assess medical and psychological outcomes among young people with Type 1 diabetes and to compare medical outcomes with a previous audit.

Methods

An observational study in two diabetes clinics for young adults (aged 16-21 years) in Sheffield, UK. Young people (n = 96: 81.4% response rate) with Type 1 diabetes (diagnosed > 6 months) completed measures of depressive symptoms, anxiety and disordered eating and consented for their medical records to be consulted.

Results

Mean HbA1c (86 ± 23 mmol/mol; 10.0 ± 2.1%); was comparable with that reported previously and considerably higher than recommended (< 58 mmol/mol or 7.5%). Screening rates were improved and non-attendance was lower than previously reported, but levels of non-proliferative retinopathy have increased. Microvascular complications are present in 46.9% of those diagnosed more than 7 years. Elevated levels of disordered eating were reported by 35.1%. Those scoring above cut-off levels for clinical anxiety (26.6%) and depression (10.9%) are comparable with other work with young people with Type 1 diabetes.

Conclusions

Despite technological advances and improvements to delivery of care, HbA1c remain above recommended levels in a significant proportion of young people, many of whom already have microvascular complications. We need to learn from European centres who achieve better results, improve transition from paediatric care, integrate mental health support with diabetes care provision and take into account young people's views about clinic.

  P. Thokala , J. Kruger , A. Brennan , H. Basarir , A. Duenas , A. Pandor , M. Gillett , J. Elliott and S. Heller
 

Aims

To build a flexible and comprehensive long-term Type 1 diabetes mellitus model incorporating the most up-to-date methodologies to allow a number of cost-effectiveness evaluations.

Methods

This paper describes the conceptual modelling, model implementation and model validation of the Sheffield Type 1 Diabetes Policy Model (version 1.0), developed through funding by the UK National Institute for Health Research as part of the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating research programme. The model is an individual patient-level simulation model of Type 1 diabetes and it includes long-term microvascular (retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy) and macrovascular (myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization and angina) diabetes-related complications and acute adverse events (severe hypoglycaemia and diabetic ketoacidosis). The occurrence of these diabetes-related complications in the model is linked to simulated individual patient-level risk factors, including HbA1c, age, duration of diabetes, lipids and blood pressure. Transition probabilities were modelled based on a combination of existing risk functions, published trials, epidemiological studies and individual-level data from the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating research programme.

Results

The model takes a lifetime perspective, estimating the impact of interventions on costs, clinical outcomes, survival and quality-adjusted life years. Validation of the model suggested that, for almost all diabetes-related complications predicted, event rates were within 10% of the normalized rates reported in the studies used to build the model.

Conclusions

The model is highly flexible and has broad potential application to evaluate the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating research programme, other structured diabetes education programmes and other interventions for Type 1 diabetes.

  J. Elliott , R. M. Jacques , J. Kruger , M. J. Campbell , S. A. Amiel , P. Mansell , J. Speight , A. Brennan and S. R. Heller
 

Aims

To determine the impact of structured education promoting flexible intensive insulin therapy on rates of diabetic ketoacidosis, and the costs associated with emergency treatment for severe hypoglycaemia and ketoacidosis in adults with Type 1 diabetes.

Methods

Using the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating research database we compared the rates of ketoacidosis and severe hypoglycaemia during the 12 months preceding Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating training with the rates during the 12-month follow-up after this training. Emergency treatment costs were calculated for associated paramedic assistance, Accident and Emergency department attendance and hospital admissions.

Results

Complete baseline and 1-year data were available for 939/1651 participants (57%). The risk of ketoacidosis in the 12 months after Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating training, compared with that before training, was 0.39 (95% CI: 0.23 to 0.65, < 0.001), reduced from 0.07 to 0.03 episodes/patient/year. For every 1 mmol/mol unit increase in HbA1c concentration, the risk of a ketoacidosis episode increased by 6% (95% CI: 5 to 7%; 88% for a 1% increase), and for each 5-year increase in diabetes duration, the relative risk reduced by 20% (95% CI: 19 to 22%). The number of emergency treatments decreased for ketoacidosis (< 0.001), and also for severe hypoglycaemia, including paramedic assistance (< 0.001), Accident and Emergency department attendance (= 0.029) and hospital admission (= 0.001). In the study cohort, the combined cost of emergency treatment for ketoacidosis and severe hypoglycaemia fell by 64%, from £119,470 to £42,948.

Conclusions

Structured training in flexible intensive insulin therapy is associated with a 61% reduction in the risk of ketoacidosis and with 64% lower emergency treatment costs for ketoacidosis and severe hypoglycaemia.

 
 
 
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