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Articles by J. Ahmad
Total Records ( 4 ) for J. Ahmad
  A. Azizah , O.M. Ariff , H. Yaakub , J. Ahmad , S. Sukardi and H. Wahid
  The study was conducted to determine the differences in the interval between removal of Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) and standing oestrus (C_ES) interval between CIDR removal and Ovulation (C_OV) interval between oestrus and Ovulation (ES_OV), predetermined Artificial Insemination (AI) and Pregnancy rate following prostaglandin (PGF) treatment and CIDR removal at standing oestrus in Kedah-Kelantan (KK) and KK crossbred cows. A total of 35 KK (n = 11), Brakmas (BK: n = 10) and Charoke (CK: n = 14) cows were inserted with CIDR containing 1.38 g Progesterone (P4) for 7 days and followed with intramuscular injection of 500 μg Cloprosterol of PGF synthetic analogue 2 days prior CIDR removal. The oestrous behaviour was observed for 72 h at 2 h intervals beginning 12 h after CIDR removal. AI was carried out at 6 and 12 h after standing oestrus was detected. Mean interval between C_ES, C_OV and ES_OV were 52.97±6.16, 94.42±16.41 and 53.75±25.36 h, respectively. The number of follicles >5 mm in diameter at the time of CIDR removal was significantly lower in CK (p = 0.04) compared to KK. The results of POF size and number of follicle size ≥5 mm either at CIDR removal or prior ovulation and P4 concentration at day 0, 7 and 14 were found to be not significantly different at p = 0.05. The pregnancy rate was higher (p<0.05) in CK (43.8%) followed by KK (31.3%) and BK (25%). The study provides results which could be used in the development of TAI on oestrous synchronisation protocol of KK and KK crossbred cows.
  J. Ahmad , L. Fathurrahman and A.H. Siti Hajar
  Microalgae could be utilized as an alternative to remove inorganic nutrients from wastewater and makes them a useful phytoremediation tool in wastewater treatment process. Phytoremediation is a process that utilized plant such as microalgae to treat the nutrient pollution in the aquaculture wastewater. Chlorella sp.’s morphology as unicellular microorganism could allow it to absorb nutrient more efficiently as compared to terrestrial plant. Thus, this study was performed to evaluate the performance of Chlorella sp. at different inoculation concentrations to determine its kinetic growth and at the same time their nutrient removal efficiency specifically Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN) and Total Phosphorus (TP). Silver Barramundi, Lates calcarifer wastewater was inoculated with microalgae culture with different concentrations of 10,15, 20, 25, 35 and 40% (v/v) in 14-days batch treatment period at room temperature (25±2°C). Determination of Chlorella sp. growth performance, TAN and TP removal was performed daily based on the APHA’s standard method of examination of water and wastewater. In this study, results indicated that the best nutrient removal was in the range of 15-20% (v/v) Chlorella sp. inoculation concentrations which yield over 90% nutrient removal with final effluent of 0.08 mg L-1 TAN and 0.01 mg L-1 TP. The Chlorella sp. growth kinetics fitted the Monod model and the nutrient removal fitted with the first order kinetic. It could be concluded that Chlorella sp. is a potential candidate to treat aquaculture wastewater and served as green technology to mitigate the greenhouse-related problems.
  L. Fathurrahman , A.H. Siti Hajar , D. Wan Nur Sakinah , Z. Nurhazwani and J. Ahmad
  One of the main limitations of productivity in photobioreactor is the inefficient conversion of the available light into biomass. Photoautotrophic cells such as microalgae only absorb a small fraction of supplied illumination due to limitation of its photosystem’s (PS) absorbing rate. However, phenomenon of Flashing Light Effect (FLE) allows microalgae to utilize strong light exceptionally through intermittent exposure. Exposure of strong light at correct frequency of light and dark photoperiod would allow two pigment-protein complexes, PSI and PSII to be at the equilibrium mid-point potential to allow efficient light conversion. Narrow range of optimum frequency is crucial since overexposure to strong light would injured photosynthetic apparatus whereas longer dark period would contributed to loss of biomass due to triacylglycerol metabolism. The behaviour of microalgae towards various illumination conditions of FLE was determined at batch Photobioreactor (PBR) by varying the aeration flow rate: 16.94, 33.14 and 49.28 mL sec-1 which yield, respectively the light exposure time of 3.99, 1.71 and 1.1 seconds per cycle. Maximum cell density in FLE-PBR was significantly higher at the exponential phase as compared to the continuously illuminated culture (p = 5.62x10-5, a = 0.05) under the flow rate of 25.07 mL sec-1. Maximum cell density yield of FLE-PBR and continuously illuminated PBR was, respectively 3.1125x107 and 2.947x107 cells mL-1. Utilization of FLE as an innovative solution to increase the efficiency of microalgae to convert light into chemical energy would revolutionize the microalgae culture, reduce the time for cultivation and produce higher maximum biomass density.
  A.A. Malik , J. Ahmad , S. Suryapani , M.Z. Abdin , S.R. Mir and Mohammed Ali
  India with its copiousness of exuberant flora is one of the richest countries as regards the genetic resources of medicinal plants and occupies unquestionably a premier position in the use of herbal drugs but in this era of high-tech wizardry, urbanization and industrialization has created needless disturbance in the vulnerably delicate ecosystems due to the accretion of large quantities of municipal wastes and industrial residues. On the other hand, continued applications of chemical fertilizers resulted in the contamination of surface and ground waters and have adversely affected the biological, physical and chemical properties of soil. It was therefore, suggested to find and evaluate methods which can help solve serious environmental and plant nutritional problems. An experiment was conducted in this regard at the research field of Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India to assess the impact of sewage sludge biosolid, composted sugarcane pressmud and farmyard manure on volatile oil content and composition of Artemisia annua Linn., an important aromatic-antibacterial herb. The oil is quite useful pharmaceutically and is used in perfumery, cosmetics, aromatherapy and dermatology as an antimicrobial agent having fungicidal properties. We undertook the present study with a view to maintain the ecosystems of the soil and mitigate environmental pollution. The principal findings revealed significant variations in the oil content and percentage occurrence of different constituents therefore, paving the way for enhanced production of volatiles in this industrial crop as well as emerging as an alternative control measure for mitigation of environmental pollution.
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