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Articles by J. T Parsons
Total Records ( 3 ) for J. T Parsons
  S Naar King , J. T Parsons , D. A Murphy , X Chen , D. R Harris and M. E. Belzer

Objective  To determine if Healthy Choices, a motivational interviewing intervention targeting multiple risk behaviors, improved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load.

Design  A randomized, 2-group repeated measures design with analysis of data from baseline and 6- and 9-month follow-up collected from 2005 to 2007.

Setting  Five US adolescent medicine HIV clinics.

Participants  A convenience sample with at least 1 of 3 risk behaviors (nonadherence to HIV medications, substance abuse, and unprotected sex) was enrolled. The sample was aged 16 to 24 years and primarily African American. Of the 205 enrolled, 19 did not complete baseline data collections, for a final sample size of 186. Young people living with HIV were randomized to the intervention plus specialty care (n = 94) or specialty care alone (n = 92). The 3- and 6-month follow-up rates, respectively, were 86% and 82% for the intervention group and 81% and 73% for controls.

Intervention  Healthy Choices was a 4-session individual clinic-based motivational interviewing intervention delivered during a 10-week period. Motivational interviewing is a method of communication designed to elicit and reinforce intrinsic motivation for change.

Outcome Measure  Plasma viral load.

Results  Youth randomized to Healthy Choices showed a significant decline in viral load at 6 months postintervention compared with youth in the control condition (β = –0.36, t = –2.15, P = .03), with those prescribed antiretroviral medications showing the lowest viral loads. Differences were no longer significant at 9 months.

Conclusion  A motivational interviewing intervention targeting multiple risk behaviors resulted in short-term improvements in viral load for youth living with HIV.

Trial Registration Identifier: NCT00103532

  K. E MacDonell , S Naar King , D. A Murphy , J. T Parsons and G. W. Harper

Objective To test predictors of medication adherence in high-risk racial or ethnic minority youth living with HIV (YLH) using a conceptual model of social cognitive predictors including a continuous measure of motivational readiness. Methods Youth were participants in a multi-site clinical trial examining the efficacy of a motivational intervention. Racial-minority YLH (primarily African American) who were prescribed antiretroviral medication were included (N = 104). Data were collected using computer-assisted personal interviewing method via an Internet-based application and questionnaires. Results Using path analysis with bootstrapping, most youth reported suboptimal adherence, which predicted higher viral load. Higher motivational readiness predicted optimal adherence, and higher social support predicted readiness. Decisional balance was indirectly related to adherence. Conclusions The model provided a plausible framework for understanding adherence in this population. Culturally competent interventions focused on readiness and social support may be helpful for improving adherence in YLH.

  T Petzold , A. W Orr , C Hahn , K. A Jhaveri , J. T Parsons and M. A. Schwartz

Atherogenesis involves activation of NF-B in endothelial cells by fluid shear stress. Because this pathway involves integrins, we investigated the involvement of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). We found that FAK was not required for flow-stimulated translocation of the p65 NF-B subunit to the nucleus but was essential for phosphorylation of p65 on serine 536 and induction of ICAM-1, an NF-B-dependent gene. NF-B activation by TNF- or hydrogen peroxide was FAK independent. Events upstream of NF-B, including integrin activation, Rac activation, reactive oxygen production, and degradation of IB, were FAK independent. FAK therefore regulates NF-B phosphorylation and transcriptional activity in response to flow by a novel mechanism.

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