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Articles by J. S Ross
Total Records ( 4 ) for J. S Ross
  J. S Ross , D Madigan , K. P Hill , D. S Egilman , Y Wang and H. M. Krumholz

Background  In September 2004, rofecoxib was voluntarily withdrawn from the worldwide market. Our objective was to determine whether and when analysis of published and unpublished placebo-controlled trials could have revealed cardiovascular risk associated with rofecoxib before its withdrawal as an example to inform future postmarket pharmaceutical safety surveillance efforts.

Methods  We conducted a cumulative subject-level pooled analysis of data from all randomized, placebo-controlled trials of rofecoxib conducted by the manufacturer before September 2004. Our main outcome measurement was incidence of any investigator-reported death from any cause or cardiovascular thromboembolic (CVT) adverse event.

Results  We identified 30 randomized, placebo-controlled trials of rofecoxib that enrolled a combined 20 152 subjects. Trial duration ranged from 4 weeks to 4 years; enrollment ranged from 17 to 2586 subjects prescribed either rofecoxib or placebo; and rofecoxib dose ranged from 12.5 mg to 50 mg. As of December 2000, 21 of these trials had been completed (70%), and the risk of a CVT adverse event or death was greater among subjects assigned to the rofecoxib group (rate ratio [RR], 2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-5.81) (P = .07), raising concerns from a safety standpoint. Subsequently collected data through June 2001 showed that rofecoxib was associated with a 35% increased risk of a CVT adverse event or death (RR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.00-1.96) (P = .05). Analyzing data available as of April 2002, we found a 39% increased risk (RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.07-1.80) (P = .02), and using data available as of September 2004, we found a 43% increased risk (RR,1.43; 95% CI, 1.16-1.76) (P < .001).

Conclusion  Cumulative pooled analysis of all randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrates a trend toward increased cardiovascular risk associated with rofecoxib compared with placebo as early as December 2000, the comparison reaching a P value of .05 by June 2001, nearly 31/2 years before the manufacturer's voluntary market withdrawal.

  D. T Ko , J. S Ross , Y Wang and H. M. Krumholz

Background— Cardiac catheterization is substantially underused among higher-risk patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with appropriate indications but overused among patients with inappropriate indications. We sought to determine the importance of anticipated benefit and anticipated harm on the use of cardiac catheterization among older patients with AMI.

Methods and Results— We performed an analysis of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries hospitalized with an AMI between 1998 and 2001. Multivariate models were developed to determine relative importance of anticipated benefit (baseline cardiovascular risk), anticipated harm (bleeding risk, comorbidities), and demographic factors (age, sex, race, regional invasive intensity) in predicting cardiac catheterization use within 60 days of AMI admission. Analyses were stratified by American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association class I or II as appropriate, and class III as inappropriate. Determinants of reduced likelihood of cardiac catheterization among 42 241 AMI patients with appropriate indications included (in order of importance) older age (likelihood 2=1309.5), higher bleeding risk score (likelihood 2=471.2), more comorbidities (likelihood 2=276.6), female sex (likelihood 2=162.9), hospitalization in low (likelihood 2=67.9) or intermediate intensity invasive regions (likelihood 2=22.4) (all P<0.001), and baseline cardiovascular risk (likelihood 2=6.4, P=0.01). Among 2398 AMI patients with inappropriate indications, significant determinants of greater procedure likelihood included younger age, male sex, lower bleeding risk score, and fewer comorbidities.

Conclusions— Regardless of the procedure indication, the decision to perform cardiac catheterization in this population appears largely driven by demographic factors and potential harm rather than potential benefit of the procedure.

  S. M Bernheim , J. N Grady , Z Lin , Y Wang , S. V Savage , K. R Bhat , J. S Ross , M. M Desai , A. R Merrill , L. F Han , M. T Rapp , E. E Drye , S. L. T Normand and H. M. Krumholz

Patient outcomes provide a critical perspective on quality of care. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is publicly reporting hospital 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMRs) and risk-standardized readmission rates (RSRRs) for patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF). We provide a national perspective on hospital performance for the 2010 release of these measures.

Methods and Results—

The hospital RSMRs and RSRRs are calculated from Medicare claims data for fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries, 65 years or older, hospitalized with AMI or HF between July 1, 2006, and June 30, 2009. The rates are calculated using hierarchical logistic modeling to account for patient clustering, and are risk-adjusted for age, sex, and patient comorbidities. The median RSMR for AMI was 16.0% and for HF was 10.8%. Both measures had a wide range of hospital performance with an absolute 5.2% difference between hospitals in the 5th versus 95th percentile for AMI and 5.0% for HF. The median RSRR for AMI was 19.9% and for HF was 24.5% (3.9% range for 5th to 95th percentile for AMI, 6.7% for HF). Distinct regional patterns were evident for both measures and both conditions.


High RSRRs persist for AMI and HF and clinically meaningful variation exists for RSMRs and RSRRs for both conditions. Our results suggest continued opportunities for improvement in patient outcomes for HF and AMI.

  J. S Ross , J Chen , Z Lin , H Bueno , J. P Curtis , P. S Keenan , S. L. T Normand , G Schreiner , J. A Spertus , M. T Vidan , Y Wang and H. M. Krumholz

Background— In July 2009, Medicare began publicly reporting hospitals’ risk-standardized 30-day all-cause readmission rates (RSRRs) among fee-for-service beneficiaries discharged after hospitalization for heart failure from all the US acute care nonfederal hospitals. No recent national trends in RSRRs have been reported, and it is not known whether hospital-specific performance is improving or variation in performance is decreasing.

Methods and Results— We used 2004–2006 Medicare administrative data to identify all fee-for-service beneficiaries admitted to a US acute care hospital for heart failure and discharged alive. We estimated mean annual RSRRs, a National Quality Forum-endorsed metric for quality, using 2-level hierarchical models that accounted for age, sex, and multiple comorbidities; variation in quality was estimated by the SD of the RSRRs. There were 570 996 distinct hospitalizations for heart failure in which the patient was discharged alive in 4728 hospitals in 2004, 544 550 in 4694 hospitals in 2005, and 501 234 in 4674 hospitals in 2006. Unadjusted 30-day all-cause readmission rates were virtually identical over this period: 23.0% in 2004, 23.3% in 2005, and 22.9% in 2006. The mean and SD of RSRRs were also similar: mean (SD) of 23.7% (1.3) in 2004, 23.9% (1.4) in 2005, and 23.8% (1.4) in 2006, suggesting similar hospital variation throughout the study period.

Conclusions— National mean and RSRR distributions among Medicare beneficiaries discharged after hospitalization for heart failure have not changed in recent years, indicating that there was neither improvement in hospital readmission rates nor in hospital variations in rates over this time period.

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