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Articles by J. S Pankow
Total Records ( 4 ) for J. S Pankow
  N. L Smith , M. H Chen , A Dehghan , D. P Strachan , S Basu , N Soranzo , C Hayward , I Rudan , M Sabater Lleal , J. C Bis , M. P. M de Maat , A Rumley , X Kong , Q Yang , F. M. K Williams , V Vitart , H Campbell , A Malarstig , K. L Wiggins , C. M Van Duijn , W. L McArdle , J. S Pankow , A. D Johnson , A Silveira , B McKnight , A. G Uitterlinden , Aleksic Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium; , J. B Meigs , A Peters , W Koenig , M Cushman , S Kathiresan , J. I Rotter , E. G Bovill , A Hofman , E Boerwinkle , G. H Tofler , J. F Peden , B. M Psaty , F Leebeek , A. R Folsom , M. G Larson , T. D Spector , A. F Wright , J. F Wilson , A Hamsten , T Lumley , J. C. M Witteman , W Tang and C. J. O'Donnell

Background— Plasma levels of coagulation factors VII (FVII), VIII (FVIII), and von Willebrand factor (vWF) influence risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis. We conducted genome-wide association studies to identify new loci associated with plasma levels.

Methods and Results— The setting of the study included 5 community-based studies for discovery comprising 23 608 European-ancestry participants: Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, British 1958 Birth Cohort, Framingham Heart Study, and Rotterdam Study. All subjects had genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) scans and at least 1 phenotype measured: FVII activity/antigen, FVIII activity, and vWF antigen. Each study used its genotype data to impute to HapMap SNPs and independently conducted association analyses of hemostasis measures using an additive genetic model. Study findings were combined by meta-analysis. Replication was conducted in 7604 participants not in the discovery cohort. For FVII, 305 SNPs exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold of 5.0x10–8 and comprised 5 loci on 5 chromosomes: 2p23 (smallest P value 6.2x10–24), 4q25 (3.6x10–12), 11q12 (2.0x10–10), 13q34 (9.0x10–259), and 20q11.2 (5.7x10–37). Loci were within or near genes, including 4 new candidate genes and F7 (13q34). For vWF, 400 SNPs exceeded the threshold and marked 8 loci on 6 chromosomes: 6q24 (1.2x10–22), 8p21 (1.3x10–16), 9q34 (<5.0x10–324), 12p13 (1.7x10–32), 12q23 (7.3x10–10), 12q24.3 (3.8x10–11), 14q32 (2.3x10–10), and 19p13.2 (1.3x10–9). All loci were within genes, including 6 new candidate genes, as well as ABO (9q34) and VWF (12p13). For FVIII, 5 loci were identified and overlapped vWF findings. Nine of the 10 new findings were replicated.

Conclusions— New genetic associations were discovered outside previously known biological pathways and may point to novel prevention and treatment targets of hemostasis disorders.

  A Dehghan , Q Yang , A Peters , S Basu , J. C Bis , A. R Rudnicka , M Kavousi , M. H Chen , J Baumert , G. D.O Lowe , B McKnight , W Tang , M de Maat , M. G Larson , S Eyhermendy , W. L McArdle , T Lumley , J. S Pankow , A Hofman , J. M Massaro , F Rivadeneira , M Kolz , K. D Taylor , C. M van Duijn , S Kathiresan , T Illig , Y. S Aulchenko , K. A Volcik , A. D Johnson , A. G Uitterlinden , G. H Tofler , C Gieger , Psaty Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium , D. J Couper , E Boerwinkle , W Koenig , C. J O`Donnell , J. C Witteman , D. P Strachan , N. L Smith and A. R. Folsom

Background— Fibrinogen is both central to blood coagulation and an acute-phase reactant. We aimed to identify common variants influencing circulation fibrinogen levels.

Methods and Results— We conducted a genome-wide association analysis on 6 population-based studies, the Rotterdam Study, the Framingham Heart Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, the Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease/KORA Augsburg Study, and the British 1958 Birth Cohort Study, including 22 096 participants of European ancestry. Four loci were marked by 1 or more single-nucleotide polymorphisms that demonstrated genome-wide significance (P<5.0x10–8). These included a single-nucleotide polymorphism located in the fibrinogen β chain (FGB) gene and 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms representing newly identified loci. The high-signal single-nucleotide polymorphisms were rs1800789 in exon 7 of FGB (P=1.8x10–30), rs2522056 downstream from the interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) gene (P=1.3x10–15), rs511154 within intron 1 of the propionyl coenzyme A carboxylase (PCCB) gene (P=5.9x10–10), and rs1539019 on the NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 isoforms (NLRP3) gene (P=1.04x10–8).

Conclusions— Our findings highlight biological pathways that may be important in regulation of inflammation underlying cardiovascular disease.

  C. L Wassel , J. S Pankow , C. A Peralta , S Choudhry , M. F Seldin and D. K. Arnett

Background— Differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden exist among racial/ethnic groups in the United States, with African-Americans having the highest prevalence. Subclinical CVD measures have also been shown to differ by race or ethnicity. In the United States, there has been a significant intermixing among racial/ethnic groups creating admixed populations. Very little research exists on the relationship of genetic ancestry and subclinical CVD measures.

Methods and Results— These associations were investigated in 712 black and 705 Hispanic participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis candidate gene substudy. Individual ancestry was estimated from 199 genetic markers using STRUCTURE. Associations of ancestry and coronary artery calcium (CAC) and common and internal carotid intima media thickness were evaluated using log-binomial and linear regression models. Splines indicated linear associations of ancestry with subclinical CVD measures in African-Americans but presence of threshold effects in Hispanics. Among African-Americans, each SD increase in European ancestry was associated with an 8% (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.15; P=0.01) higher CAC prevalence. Each SD increase in European ancestry was also associated with a 2% (95% CI –3.4% to –0.5%, P=0.008) lower common carotid intima media thickness in African-Americans. Among Hispanics, the highest tertile of European ancestry was associated with a 34% higher CAC prevalence (P=0.02) when compared with the lowest tertile.

Conclusions— The linear association of ancestry and subclinical CVD suggests that genetic effects may be important in determining CAC and carotid intima media thickness among African-Americans. Our results also suggest that CAC and common carotid intima media thickness may be important phenotypes for further study with admixture mapping.

  M. T Scheuner , C. M Setodji , J. S Pankow , R. S Blumenthal and E. Keeler

Background— The General Cardiovascular Risk Profile is a multivariable model that predicts global cardiovascular disease risk. Our goal was to assess the ability of the General Cardiovascular Risk Profile to identify individuals with advanced coronary artery calcification (CAC) and determine whether identification is improved with family history.

Methods and Results— Using data from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, 3 sex-specific models were developed with ordinal logistic regressions to relate risk factors to CAC scores. Model 1 included covariates in the General Cardiovascular Risk Profile. Then family history was added, defined as having at least 1 first-degree relative with premature coronary heart disease (model 2) or as a weak, moderate, or strong family history based on number of relatives with coronary heart disease, age at onset, and the presence of stroke or diabetes in the family (model 3). For each model, we estimated mathematical CAC risk functions, derived CAC score sheets, evaluated the ability to discriminate persons having positive CAC scores, and assessed reclassification of individuals with low, intermediate, or high probability of CAC >300. Model 1 worked well to identify women and men with positive CAC scores; c-statistics were 0.752 and 0.718 and 2 values were 821.2 (P<0.0001) and 730.6 (P<0.0001), respectively. Addition of family history improved discrimination and fit of model 1. However, reclassification of participants with advanced CAC was significantly improved with model 3 only.

Conclusions— The General Cardiovascular Risk Profile identifies advanced CAC, an emerging indication for aggressive risk factor modification. Incorporation of family history, especially comprehensive familial risk stratification, provides incremental prognostic value.

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