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Articles by J. R Hughes
Total Records ( 2 ) for J. R Hughes
  C. J Fabian , B. F Kimler , C. M Zalles , J. R Klemp , B. K Petroff , Q. J Khan , P Sharma , K. D. R Setchell , X Zhao , T. A Phillips , T Metheny , J. R Hughes , H. W Yeh and K. A. Johnson
 

Preclinical and correlative studies suggest reduced breast cancer with higher lignan intake or blood levels. We conducted a pilot study of modulation of risk biomarkers for breast cancer in premenopausal women after administration of the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol given as the diglycoside (SDG). Eligibility criteria included regular menstrual cycles, no oral contraceptives, a >3-fold increase in 5-year risk, and baseline Ki-67 of ≥2% in areas of hyperplasia in breast tissue sampled by random periareolar fine-needle aspiration (RPFNA) during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. SDG (50 mg/d) was given for 12 months, followed by repeat RPFNA. The primary end point was change in Ki-67. Secondary end points included change in cytomorphology, mammographic breast density, serum bioavailable estradiol and testosterone insulin-like growth factor-I and IGF-binding protein-3, and plasma lignan levels. Forty-five of 49 eligible women completed the study with excellent compliance (median = 96%) and few serious side effects (4% grade 3). Median plasma enterolactone increased ~9-fold, and total lignans increased 16-fold. Thirty-six (80%) of the 45 evaluable subjects showed a decrease in Ki-67, from a median of 4% (range, 2-16.8%) to 2% (range, 0-15.2%; P < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed rank test). A decrease from baseline in the proportion of women with atypical cytology (P = 0.035) was also observed. Based on favorable risk biomarker modulation and lack of adverse events, we are initiating a randomized trial of SDG versus placebo in premenopausal women. Cancer Prev Res; 3(10); 1342–50. ©2010 AACR.

  M. T Kassouf , J. R Hughes , S Taylor , S. J McGowan , S Soneji , A. L Green , P Vyas and C. Porcher
 

Coordination of cellular processes through the establishment of tissue-specific gene expression programs is essential for lineage maturation. The basic helix-loop-helix hemopoietic transcriptional regulator TAL1 (formerly SCL) is required for terminal differentiation of red blood cells. To gain insight into TAL1 function and mechanisms of action in erythropoiesis, we performed ChIP-sequencing and gene expression analyses from primary fetal liver erythroid cells. We show that TAL1 coordinates expression of genes in most known red cell–specific processes. The majority of TAL1's genomic targets require direct DNA-binding activity. However, one-fifth of TAL1's target sequences, mainly among those showing high affinity for TAL1, can recruit the factor independently of its DNA binding activity. An unbiased DNA motif search of sequences bound by TAL1 identified CAGNTG as TAL1-preferred E-box motif in erythroid cells. Novel motifs were also characterized that may help distinguish activated from repressed genes and suggest a new mechanism by which TAL1 may be recruited to DNA. Finally, analysis of recruitment of GATA1, a protein partner of TAL1, to sequences occupied by TAL1 suggests that TAL1's binding is necessary prior or simultaneous to that of GATA1. This work provides the framework to study regulatory networks leading to erythroid terminal maturation and to model mechanisms of action of tissue-specific transcription factors.

 
 
 
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