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Articles by J. R Gayen
Total Records ( 2 ) for J. R Gayen
  J. R Gayen , K Zhang , S. P RamachandraRao , M Mahata , Y Chen , H. S Kim , R. K Naviaux , K Sharma , S. K Mahata and D. T. O'Connor
  Background—

Oxidative stress, an excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) outstripping antioxidant defense mechanisms, occurs in cardiovascular pathologies, including hypertension. In the present study, we used biochemical, physiological, and pharmacological approaches to explore the role of derangements of catecholamines, ROS, and the endothelium-derived relaxing factor nitric oxide (NO) in the development of a hyperadrenergic model of hereditary hypertension: targeted ablation (knockout [KO]) of chromogranin A (Chga) in the mouse.

Methods and Results—

Homozygous (–/–) Chga gene knockout (KO) mice were compared with wild-type (WT, +/+) control mice. In the KO mouse, elevations of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were accompanied by not only elevated catecholamine (norepinephrine and epinephrine) concentrations but also increased ROS (H2O2) and isoprostane (an index of lipid peroxidation), as well as depletion of NO. Renal transcript analyses implicated changes in Nox1/2, Xo/Xdh, and Sod1,2 mRNAs in ROS elevation by the KO state. KO alterations in blood pressure, catecholamines, H2O2, isoprostane, and NO could be abrogated or even normalized (rescued) by either sympathetic outflow inhibition (with clonidine) or NADPH oxidase inhibition (with apocynin). In cultured renal podocytes, H2O2 production was substantially augmented by epinephrine (probably through β2-adrenergic receptors) and modestly diminished by norepinephrine (probably through 1-adrenergic receptors).

Conclusions—

ROS appear to play a necessary role in the development of hyperadrenergic hypertension in this model, in a process mechanistically linking elevated blood pressure with catecholamine excess, renal transcriptional responses, ROS elevation, lipid peroxidation, and NO depletion. Some of the changes appear to be dependent on transcription, whereas others are immediate. The cycle could be disrupted by inhibition of either sympathetic outflow or NADPH oxidase. Because common genetic variation at the human CHGA locus alters BP, the results have implications for antihypertensive treatment as well as prevention of target-organ consequences of the disease. The results document novel pathophysiological links between the adrenergic system and oxidative stress and suggest new strategies to probe the role and actions of ROS within this setting.

  R. S Friese , J. R Gayen , N. R Mahapatra , G. W Schmid Schonbein , D. T O'Connor and S. K. Mahata
 

Chromogranin A (CHGA) has a crucial role in formation of regulated secretory granules in neuroendocrine tissues and is also a prohormone that is proteolytically processed into peptides with diverse and complex actions. CHGA and several of its peptide products, including catestatin and pancreastatin, are implicated in pathogenesis of essential hypertension, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. The Chga knockout mouse (Chga KO) displays severe hypertension coupled with reduction in size, number, and density of regulated secretory granules. We performed genome-wide transcriptome profiling in Chga KO adrenal gland and liver for insight into biochemical and physiological systems altered in this monogenic mouse model of hypertension. Adrenal gene expression pathway prediction of enhanced insulin sensitivity (P = 0.03) in Chga KO was confirmed with glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) measurements: blood glucose was normal in Chga KO, blood insulin was reduced 4.5-fold (P < 0.0001), and HOMA-IR was decreased 3.8-fold (P < 0.002). Remarkably, such observations conclusively dissociate fundamental features of the metabolic syndrome in this monogenic hypertension model. Exogenous pancreastatin treatment restored insulin sensitivity in the Chga KO to near-normal levels. Gene expression predictions of decreased adrenal cholesterol biosynthesis (P < 0.001) and increased hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis (P < 0.001) were verified with tissue total cholesterol assays: Chga KO adrenal cholesterol decreased 1.8-fold (P = 0.039) and hepatic cholesterol increased 1.8-fold (P = 0.018). Transcriptional regulatory network prediction identified sets of transcription factors that may provide insight into the unclear mechanistic links among CHGA, cholesterol, insulin sensitivity, and the metabolic syndrome. These experiments demonstrate, for the first time, that genetic variation at the CHGA locus impacts insulin sensitivity and tissue cholesterol levels in an intact, living organism. The Chga KO may constitute a unique model for studying the relationship between the CHGA locus and disease phenotypes of the metabolic syndrome.

 
 
 
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