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Articles by J. Pourreza
Total Records ( 16 ) for J. Pourreza
  Gh. Sadeghi , A. Samie , J. Pourreza and H.R. Rahmani
  This study was conducted to determine canavanine content and examine the efficacy of soaking in water, acetic acid or heat treatments on the detoxification of bitter vetch for broiler chickens. A total of 1280 one-day old broiler chicks were placed in 64 pens, twenty in each pen. Treatments were included a corn -soybean based diet as control; raw bitter vetch; soaked in water (1:5, wt/vol) for 12 h, autoclaved (121oC, 20min), then dried at room temperature (SAD); coarsely ground, soaked in water for 24 h, autoclaved and dried (GSAD); coarsely ground, soaked in water for 47 h with exchange of water every 12 h, cooked (75min at 95oC) and dried (GSCD); coarsely ground, soaked at 1% Acetic acid solution for 24h at 60oC (GAAS) bitter vetch in three levels (15, 30, 45%). Each treatment replicated four times. Raw bitter vetch was contained 0.073 percent canavanine. All processing methods reduced canavanine content of seeds to a negotiable amount. Feeding of GSCD and GSAD diet resulted to higher and lower body weight (BW), feed intake (FI) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) at 21, 42 and 49 days, respectively, than other detoxification methods (P<0.05). Increasing Bitter vetch level from 15 to 30 and 45 percent significantly declined BW, FI and increased FER (P<0.05). Feeding of diet with 15% of GSCD and SAD bitter vetch resulted in performance more similar to control diet (P>0.05). Different detoxification methods had no effect on the liver weight, but pancreas weight decreased in all detoxification methods in comparison to raw bitter vetch (P<0.05). In all bitter vetch treatments liver weights were higher in 30 and 45% in comparison to15% (P<0.05). The results showed that all processing methods were efficient to eliminate canavanine from seeds and GSCD and SAD treatments were more effective to detoxification of the bitter vetch for broiler chicken.
  M.R. Ebadi , J. Pourreza , J. Jamalian , M.A. Edriss , A.H. Samie and S.A. Mirhadi
  In order to assess and determine amino acids profile and availability in different sorghum grain (SG) varieties, three SG varieties including low tannin (0.09%, LTS), medium tannin (0.19%, MTS), and high tannin (0.37%, HTS) were grown in the same location. The grains were analyzed for their proximate analyses, tannin, and amino acids. True amino acid availability (TAAA) was obtained by caecectomized single comb leghorn cockerels and Sibbald`s method. The results showed that the first and the second limiting amino acids in LTS and MTS were methionine and cystine, respectively. Whereas in HTS, lysine (0.166%) was the first and methionine (0.176%) was the second limiting amino acid. Methionine contents in LTS, MTS, and HTS were 0.114%, 0.182%, and 0.176%, respectively. Although crude protein was lower in HTS (10%) than the other SG, histidine, methionine, and isoleucine were higher for HTS as compared to LTS and MTS. TAAA decreased when tannin content increased and all amino acids had a lower availability in HTS than in LTS and MTS (p<0.05). Methionine in HTS and LTS had the highest availability as had glutamic acid in MTS. The availability of proline was most affected by tannin, which was 91.55% for LTS, 84.82% for MTS, and 22.82% for HTS (p<0.05).
  A. Pishnamazi , J. Pourreza , M. A. Edriss and A.H. Samie
  An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of genotype (meat-type or egg-type) on the AME digestibility of selected ingredients. The practice of using only one value for apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of feed ingredients for all classes of poultry has been questioned. The ability to convert nutrients to the final products depends on a variety of factors, such as age, sex, genetic and housing system. Some studies have indicated that broiler breeders are less able to metabolize diet energy, than are Leghorn birds. In this study, the ingredients included samples of cereals (corn, wheat and barley), one sample of plant protein (soybean meal) and one cereal by-product (wheat bran). Forty adult males (20 per breed) were randomly assigned to five feedstuffs. Each feedstuff was fed to four birds per breed. The AMEn values were determined using a classical total collection method (Sibbald method). The AME of each feed ingredient was calculated from the difference between GE intake and GE losses in the droppings. The AME values were corrected to zero nitrogen balance (AMEn). The results were showed the average AMEn digestibility in wheat (egg-type : 2785, Kcals/Kg ; meat-type : 2750 Kcals/Kg) and barley (egg-type : 2715 Kcals/Kg; meat-type : 2675 Kcals/Kg) samples were similar in two breeds. The AMEn digestibility in White Leghorn birds was significantly greater for corn (egg-type : 3065 kcals/Kg ; meat-type : 2842 kcals/Kg) , soybean (egg-type : 2185 Kcals/Kg ; meat-type : 2040 Kcals/Kg) and wheat bran (egg-type : 1440 Kcals/Kg ; meat-type : 1333 Kcals/Kg) compared to the broiler strain. In this study, considerable differences were also noted between the two breeds that were tested in their ability to utilize the AME of feed ingredients. In mature broiler breeder hens excess ME intake can cause fat deposition; consequently, accurate representation of the energy content of a breeder diet is important. On the other hand, deficiencies of energy around the time of peak egg production will likely reduce egg production at this time, or production will fall after peak by definition. Since tables concerning ingredient composition usually contain ME values determined with White Leghorn, further research is needed if energy content of broiler breeder diets is accurately represented.
  H.R. Taheri , H.R. Rahmani and J. Pourreza
  This study was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of oil extracted propolis (OEP) on humoral immunity of broilers from 1st to 7th week of age. The experiment started with 672 chicken (Ross 308, 336 marked male and female), in a completely randomized design test with 7 treatments, 4 replicates and 24 chicken (12 male, 12 female) per treatment. Chicken received the normal soybean meal-corn diet supplemented with 0 (control), 40, 70, 100, 400, 700 and 1000 mg/kg of OEP. Immunization program included vaccination against infectious bronchitis virus (IB, H120 on days one and 8 spray; H52 on day 30 drinking), Newcastle disease (ND, B1, day 10, eye drop; Lasota days 20 and 32 drinking) and infectious bursal disease (BD, or Gumboro, D78, days 12 and 24, eye drop). Blood samples were collected two times on days 21 and 42 of age, via brachial vein from one male and one female of each replicate and plasma was separated by centrifugation. Antibody concentration against IB, ND, BD and avian influenza (AI) were measured by ELISA method. Results indicated that antibody titer against AI, ND and BD were significantly (P<0.05) increased with OEP supplementation, without any effect on IB. Relatively negative effect of higher concentration of OEP on humoral immunity of broilers, concluded that broiler`s immune system may respond to OEP on a crucial dosage.
  A.H. Mahdavi , H.R. Rahmani and J. Pourreza
  The effect of probiotic supplements (0, 400, 1000 and 2000 gr Bioplus 2B ton-1 feed providing 0, 1.28x106, 3.2x106 and 4.6x106 cfu gr-1 feed concentration) on egg quality and laying hen`s performance was investigated on eighty white leghorn Hy-Line, W-36 strain. Evaluated traits were egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, shell thickness, shell hardness, Haugh unit,egg cholesterol, plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride and histological changes of duodenum. Although, using the different levels of probiotic caused highly significant increase (P< 0.01) in goblet cell numbers, significant increase (P< 0.05) in destroying apical cells of villus and significant decrease (P< 0.05) in plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride and egg cholesterol (mg gr-1 of yolk), but it had no significant effects on other traits.
  A. Musapuor , J. Pourreza , A. Samie and H. Moradi Shahrbabak
  This experiment was conducted to study the effects of different levels of phytase (0, 500 and 1000 FTU/kg diet), calcium (2.275 and 3.25 percent) and available phosphorus (0.175 and 0.25 percent) on phytate phosphorus utilization in laying hens. One hundreds ninety two 30-week age White Leghorn (Hy-line W-36) laying hens were randomly allocated in cages for 12 dietary treatments with arranged of 3*2*2 factorial experiment with four replicates and four hens per replicate. The experimental period lasted 90 days, when the age of hen was 42 weeks. Dietary phytase caused a significant (P< 0.05) increase in feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, tibia ash weight, tibia ash percentage, tibia phosphorus, plasma phosphorus and phosphorus digestibility. However, dietary phytase caused a significantly (P< 0.05) decrease in plasma alkaline phosphatase activity and excreta phosphorus percentage. Also phytase had no beneficial effect on egg shell quality traits. Available phosphorus levels had significant effect (P< 0.05) on tibia ash weight and tibia ash percentage. Reduction dietary available phosphorus caused a significant (P< 0.05) decrease in feed consumption. Effect of dietary calcium were significant (P< 0.05) on tibia ash weight, feed consumption and plasma phosphorus. Interaction between phytase and calcium on tibia phosphorus, plasma calcium and excreta phosphorus were significant (P< 0.05). Interaction between phytase and available phosphorus on tibia phosphorus were significant (P< 0.05). Overall, it could be concluded that in low phosphorus diet which food consumption is low, phytase would increase food consumption as well as retention of phosphorus in bones. Also, the lower excreta of phosphorus by using phytase could decrease pollution.
  A. Tabeidian , GH. Sadeghi and J. Pourreza
  This study was conducted to examine the effect of different protein and soybean oil levels on broiler chickens. A total of 480 one-day old broiler chicks of a commercial breed (Ross 308) from both sex with equal ratio were placed in 32 pens, fifteen in each pen. Treatments were included soybean oil at 0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% levels and crude protein levels were NRC (1994) recommendation and 10 percent more than NRC recommendation (NRC x 1.10). Each treatment replicated four times. Inclusion of soybean oil in diet had no significant effect on feed intake in chicks in NRC protein level. Feeding high protein diet resulted to more feed intake than NRC. Increasing diet protein up to 10 % more than NRC recommendation could not improve body weight gain in broiler chickens except for 7-21d old chicks that fed a diet containing no soybean oil and high protein level that resulted to highest weight gain. In 7-21 d old chicks feeding a diet with 2.5% soybean oil and a protein level 10% more than NRC recommendation resulted to lowest feed conversion ratio. Feeding different levels of soybean oil and protein had no effect of carcass, pancreas, intestine and preventriculus weight. Lowest abdominal fat was observed in chicks fed with a diet containing 7.5% soybean oil with NRC recommendation protein level. In chickens that fed with higher protein level, fat supplementation resulted to an increase in plasma triglyceride.
  Y. Ebrahimnezhad and J. Pourreza
  This experiment was carried out to study the effect of ionophore drugs (salinomycin, lasalocid and their combination) on the performance of broiler chicks. Also their relationship with methionine (three levels) was evaluated. 1620 one-day-old commercial broiler chicks (Arian) were divided in to 108 groups, 15 chicks per group, and tested in a completely randomized design with 3x3x3 factorial experiment and three levels (0, recommended and 1.5 times recommended) of drugs and three levels (0, 0.1% and 0.2%) of supplemental methionine. The results indicated that these drugs reduced body weight gain significantly (P< 0.05) at 21 and 56 days of the experiment. Decreasing feed consumption and increasing feed conversion was significant (P< 0.05) due to lasalocid supplementation. Increasing drug level significantly (P< 0.05) reduced body weight gain and feed intake and feed conversion was increased at 21 to 42 and 0 to 56 days of the experiment. The effect of supplemental methionine on body weight of 42 days (P< 0.05) and feed conversion at 21 to 42 and 0 to 56 days (P< 0.01) were significant. The interactions between drug type and drug level on body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion were significant (P< 0.05). Lasalocid significantly (P< 0.05) increased water intake. Drugs did not affect litter moisture and mortality. The results showed that salinomycin was better than Lasalocid. Also supplemental methionine was not effective in compensating for the growth depression caused by ionophore drugs.
  A. Teimouri , M. Rezaei , J. Pourreza , H. Sayyahzadeh and P.W. Waldroup
  The effect of energy and protein dilution in the starter period (8 to 14 days) of age, on performance and carcass characteristics of 360 Arian male chicks was studied in a completely randomized design. This experiment consisted of 6 treatments, 4 replicates, with 15 chicks per replicate. In order to dilute the diets six levels (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20) percent of ground wood charcoal was used. Chicks were fed with starter and grower diet from 15 to 21 and 22 to 42 days of age respectively. During the experiment feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio were measured weekly. Mortality was measured throughout the experiment. At 43 day of age 4 chicks each treatment was selected and carcass characteristics were measured. The results indicated that dilution of diet from 8 to 14 days of age increased feed intake in this period but, the differences were not significant. With increasing dilution rate body weight gain of chicks significantly decreased in comparison to control group (P< 0.05). Due to compensatory growth after restricted period, there was not significant difference in body weight among restricted and control groups at 42 days of age. There was not significant difference among the treatments for feed conversion ratio in whole period of the experiment (8 to 42 day). Similarly, there was not significant difference among the treatments for caloric conversion ratio in whole period of the experiment (8 to 42 day). Mortality rate in restricted groups was significantly lower than control group (P< 0.05). Diet dilution hadn`t significant effect on carcass, breast meat, drumsticks, thighs, liver, intestine, abdominal fat percentages. The results of the present study indicated that broiler chicks can withstand a 7-day period (from 8 to 14 days) feed restriction with ground wood charcoal in early age without loss in performance.
  J. Pourreza , A.H. Samie and E. Rowghani
  The influence of enzyme supplementation on performance and digestibility of dry matter and protein in young broiler chicks was examined for a diet based on triticale supplemented with different levels of enzyme. In a completely randomized design, two hundred d-old chicks (Ross strain) were divided into 20 groups, ten chicks per group. A basal diet containing 65% triticale was supplemented with zero, 100, 200, 400 and 800 g/kg enzyme and given to four replicates for 21 days. Added enzyme (xylanase) improved (P< 0.05) body weight, body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. Apparent digestibilities of energy and protein were increased (P< 0.05) due to supplemental enzyme. Non-significant improvement was observed in protein and energy efficiencies by the addition of enzyme. All improvements had a similar trend and were the highest at 200 g/kg enzyme supplementation. Higher levels of enzyme had no beneficial effect on measured criteria. The results indicated that the nutritional value of cereal grains such as triticale can be improved by supplemental enzyme containing mainly xylanase to the diet of young broiler chicks.
  M. Afsharmanesh and J. Pourreza
  A study was conducted to determine the additive effects of calcium (Ca) levels and the enzyme phytase, organic acids (citric, ascorbic acid), vitamin D3 on broiler performance and nutrient digestibility (d 1 to 21) in wheat-based diet. Broilers were fed the following diets at either 7.9, or 9 g/kg of dietary Ca with: 1) a negative control wheat-based diet, 3.15 g/kg available phosphorus (P) (NC); 2) NC + 500 units Ronozyme™ P phytase/kg diet; 3) phytase + 20 g/kg citric acid; 4) phytase + citric acid + 200 mg/kg diet ascorbic acid; 5) phytase + citric acid + ascorbic acid + 200 μg/kg diet vitamin D3; 6) NC plus 1.35 g/kg available P. These 12 diets were supplemented with 50 mg/kg of xylanase (Ronozyme™ Wx, Roche) and fed to four replicates of 20 birds each. Phytase addition at the high Ca level increased body weight (BW), feed intake (FI), and tibia ash. Increased protein and P digestibility at the lower level of Ca and both levels of Ca, respectively was also present. Subsequent addition of citric and ascorbic acid to the low Ca diets increased BW and protein digestibility by 11.1 and 23%, respectively over the values obtained from the control diet. The BW of chicks that received the positive control diet were similar to those that received the phytase, organic acids and vitamin D3 supplemented low-Ca, low-P diet. The addition of phytase with citric acid, ascorbic acid, and vitamin D3 to the low Ca control diet improved BW and P digestibility by 18 and 60%, respectively. The data from this study shows that for broiler chickens, at low-P (3.15 g/kg), low-Ca (7.9 g/kg) diets supplemented with microbial phytase, organic acids and vitamin D3 improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) and gave a similar BW as a Ca- and P- adequate diets. These low P and Ca diets can result in a considerable reduction in the amount of excreted phosphorus and nitrogen.
  A. Zamani , H.R. Rahmani and J. Pourreza
  This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing the diet of laying hens with a combination of Zn and Mn on performance traits and broken eggs in a Completely Randomized Design with a 4x4 (16 treatment) factorial arrangement. Three hundred and twenty, 28 weeks old white leghorn laying hens, strain Hy-Line W36 were divided into 64 groups, five hens per group and each four groups were assigned to one of the 16 experimental diets. Sixteen experimental diets contained a corn-soybean basal diet containing 50 mg kg-1 Zn and 30 mg kg-1 Mn supplemented with 0-0, 0-30, 0-60, 0-90, 50-0, 50-30, 50-60, 50-90, 100-0, 100-30, 100-60, 100-90, 150-0, 150-30, 150-60 and 150-90 mg kg-1 of Zn and Mn, respectively. The results indicated that Mn and Zn in combination, Mn alone and age had not any effect on egg output, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio. Mn and Zn alone and in combination had a significant (p<0.05, p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) effect on broken eggs. Different levels of Zn had significant (p<0.05) effect on egg production, without any effect on egg output, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio. Age of birds had significant (p<0.05) effect on feed consumption but did not affect egg output, egg production and feed conversion ratio.
  A. Zamani , H.R. Rahmani and J. Pourreza
  An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing the diet of laying hens with a combination of Zn and Mn on eggshell quality. Six hundred and forty white leghorn laying hens, strain Hy-Line W36 were divided into two groups according to age (28 and 44 week old). Each group then was divided into 64 and five birds per group (totally 128 groups). In both groups every four cages were assigned to one of the 16 experimental diets. Sixteen experimental diets included a corn-soybean basal diet containing 50 mg kg-1 Zn and 30 mg kg-1 Mn supplemented with 0-0, 0-30, 0-60, 0-90, 50-0, 50-30, 50-60, 50-90, 100-0, 100-30, 100-60, 100-90, 150-0, 150-30, 150-60 and 150-90 mg kg-1 of Zn and Mn, respectively. Addition of Zn increased eggshell thickness, concentration of Ca in eggshell and eggshell index and decreased concentration of P in eggshell significantly (p<0.05) and did not affect the following measures of eggshell quality: percentage, stiffness, elastic modulus, breaking strength and fracture toughness of eggshell and egg weight. In contrast addition of Mn increased percentage, stiffness, elastic modulus, breaking strength and fracture toughness of eggshell significantly (p<0.05), but did not affect the following measures of eggshell quality: Concentration of P and Ca, index and thickness of eggshell and egg weight. Addition of Zn and Mn in combination increased percentage, index (shell weight per unit surface area), stiffness, elastic modulus, breaking strength, thickness, fracture toughness and concentration of Ca in eggshell and decreased concentration of P in eggshell and did not affect egg weight. In older hens there was a significantly increase in egg weight, breaking strength, elastic modulus, stiffness and fracture toughness of eggshell and significantly (p<0.05) decrease in thickness, percentage and index of eggshell without any effect on concentration of P and Ca in eggshell.
  H.R. Ziaran , H.R. Rahmani and J. Pourreza
  This investigation was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of Oil Extract of Propolis (OEP) on immune system of broiler chickens from 1 to 47 days of age. Chicks were fed soybean meal-corn diets supplemented with levels of 0, 40, 70, 100, 400, 700 and 1000 mg kg-1 of OEP from hatching. On days 20 and 32, they were immunized with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and examined 10 days later. In general, the immune system can be stimulated by addition of OEP, without affecting the performance. At 30 days of age after immunization at 20 days, antibody response to NDV was significantly increased in chickens fed with 70 and 100 mg kg-1 of OEP in the diet (p<0.05). No effect of dietary OEP was observed on the ratio of gamma globulins to total serum proteins. Heterophil to lymphocyte ratio was significantly decreased in chickens fed with 40 and 70 mg kg-1 of OEP in the diet (p<0.05). Investigation of histological sections revealed that the number of proliferating cells of bursa of fabricius was increased in chickens fed with 1000 mg kg-1 of OEP in the diet. When broilers received the high levels (400, 700 and 1000 mg kg-1) of OEP in the diet the number of leukocytes in the lamina propria of intestine was higher compared with other levels of dietary OEP. The number of lymphoid cells in the preportal area of the liver increased at the highest dose (1000 mg kg-1) of OEP and the thickness of blood vessels wall increased at control treatment. The results indicate that both humoral and cellular immune responses were modulated by different levels of OEP in the diet and suggest that low levels (40 and 70 mg kg-1) of dietary OEP developed the immune response, whereas the chickens fed highly enriched OEP diet, showed lower immune response.
  A.H. Mahdavi , H.R. Rahmani , J. Pourreza and M.A. Edriss
  The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic (0, 400, 1000 and 2000 g Bioplus 2B ton-1 feed providing 0, 1.28 x 106, 3.2 x 106 and 4.6 x 106 cfu g-1 feed concentration) in different levels of barley substitution for corn diets (0, 50 and 100%) on laying hen`s performance, egg quality, blood factors and histological changes in duodenum. Evaluated traits were egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, shell thickness, shell hardness, Haugh unit, egg cholesterol, plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride and histological changes of duodenum. Using different levels of substitution of barley for corn showed highly significant decrease (p<0.01) in feed consumption and feed conversion ratio, highly significant increase (p<0.01) in goblet cell numbers and epithelium surface folds of villus, significant increase (p<0.05) in egg weight and damaged apical cells of villus, without any effect on other traits. Although, using the different levels of probiotic caused highly significant increase (p<0.01) in goblet cell numbers, significant increase (p<0.05) in feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and destroying apical cells of villus and significant decrease (p<0.05) in plasma cholesterol and triglyceride, but it had no effects on other traits. Consumption of probiotic alone had no effect on egg cholesterol (mg g-1 of yolk), but caused significant decrease (p<0.05) in egg cholesterol (mg g-1 of yolk) among fourth level of probiotic and another levels, in corn based diets. Interaction of different percentages of substitution of barley for corn and probiotic levels had highly significant effect (p<0.01) on feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and egg cholesterol (mg g-1 of yolk) and significant effect (p<0.05) on Hough unit.
  A. Nouri Moghadam , J. Pourreza and A.H. Samie
  The present experiment was carried out on 405 broiler chicks (Arian strain) over a period of two weeks (from 8 to 21 days of age) to investigate the effects of different levels of dietary citric acid and phosphorus on calcium and phosphorus requirements in broiler chicks and on their performance. The experiment was a 3 x 3 factorial one including three levels of zero, 1.5 and 3% citric acid as well as three levels of 0.3, 0.35 and 0.4%, respectively dietary phosphorus in a completely randomized design. Thus, 9 experimental diets were prepared, each of which was randomly administered to three groups of the chicks (three replications for each diet). The effects of different levels of citric acid and phosphorus as well as their interactive effects on body weight, daily feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency, feed/gain ratio, weight percentage of body parts, percentage of bone ash, calcium and phosphorus percentages in bone ash and plasma inorganic phosphorus and calcium were assessed and determined. The results showed that the effects of different levels of citric acid on body weight (p<0.05), feed consumption, calcium and phosphorus concentrations in bone ash and plasma (p<0.01) were significant but that they had no significant effects on bone ash percentage, feed conversion efficiency and feed/gain ratio. The effects of different levels of phosphorus on body weight, daily feed consumption, bone ash percentage, plasma calcium and phosphorus percentages (p<0.01) and bone ash phosphorus percentage (p<0.05) were significant while no significant effects were observed in the case of feed conversion efficiency, feed/gain ratio and plasma calcium. The interactive effects of citric acid and phosphorus on 21-day body weight, bone ash percentage (p<0.05), feed consumption, bone ash calcium percentage, bone ash phosphorus percentage (p<0.05), plasma phosphorus and calcium (p<0.01) were significant while they had no significant effects on other parameters measured. From the results obtained, it seems that citric acid plays a role in calcium and phosphorus utilized by poultry and may increase the absorption of these minerals.
 
 
 
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