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Articles by J. P Azulay
Total Records ( 2 ) for J. P Azulay
  C Goizet , A Boukhris , A Durr , C Beetz , J Truchetto , C Tesson , M Tsaousidou , S Forlani , L Guyant Marechal , B Fontaine , J Guimaraes , B Isidor , O Chazouilleres , D Wendum , D Grid , F Chevy , P. F Chinnery , P Coutinho , J. P Azulay , I Feki , F Mochel , C Wolf , C Mhiri , A Crosby , A Brice and G. Stevanin
 

Thirty-four different loci for hereditary spastic paraplegias have been mapped, and 16 responsible genes have been identified. Autosomal recessive forms of spastic paraplegias usually have clinically complex phenotypes but the SPG5, SPG24 and SPG28 loci are considered to be associated with ‘pure’ forms of the disease. Very recently, five mutations in the CYP7B1 gene, encoding a cytochrome P450 oxysterol 7- hydroxylase and expressed in brain and liver, have been found in SPG5 families. We analysed the coding region and exon–intron boundaries of the CYP7B1 gene by direct sequencing in a series of 82 unrelated autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia index patients, manifesting either a pure (n = 52) or a complex form (n = 30) of the disease, and in 90 unrelated index patients with sporadic pure hereditary spastic paraplegia. We identified eight, including six novel, mutations in CYP7B1 segregating in nine families. Three of these mutations were nonsense (p.R63X, p.R112X, p.Y275X) and five were missense mutations (p.T297A, p.R417H, p.R417C, p.F470I, p.R486C), the last four clustering in exon 6 at the C-terminal end of the protein. Residue R417 appeared as a mutational hot-spot. The mean age at onset in 16 patients was 16.4 ± 12.1 years (range 4–47 years). After a mean disease duration of 28.3 ± 13.4 years (10–58), spasticity and functional handicap were moderate to severe in all cases. Interestingly, hereditary spastic paraplegia was pure in seven SPG5 families but complex in two. In addition, white matter hyperintensities were observed on brain magnetic resonance imaging in three patients issued from two of the seven pure families. Lastly, the index case of one family had a chronic autoimmune hepatitis while his eldest brother died from cirrhosis and liver failure. Whether this association is fortuitous remains unsolved, however. The frequency of CYP7B1 mutations were 7.3% (n = 6/82) in our series of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia families and 3.3% (n = 3/90) in our series of sporadic pure spastic paraplegia. The recent identification of CYP7B1 as the gene responsible for SPG5 highlights a novel molecular mechanism involved in hereditary spastic paraplegia determinism.

  A Eusebio , A Pogosyan , S Wang , B Averbeck , L. D Gaynor , S Cantiniaux , T Witjas , P Limousin , J. P Azulay and P. Brown
 

Neuronal activity within and across the cortex and basal ganglia is pathologically synchronized, particularly at ~ 20 Hz in patients with Parkinson's disease. Defining how activities in spatially distributed brain regions overtly synchronize in narrow frequency bands is critical for understanding disease processes like Parkinson's disease. To address this, we studied cortical responses to electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) at various frequencies between 5 and 30 Hz in two cohorts of eight patients with Parkinson's disease from two different surgical centres. We found that evoked activity consisted of a series of diminishing waves with a peak latency of 21 ms for the first wave in the series. The cortical evoked potentials (cEPs) averaged in each group were well fitted by a damped oscillator function (r ≥0.9, P < 0.00001). Fits suggested that the natural frequency of the subthalamo-cortical circuit was around 20 Hz. When the system was forced at this frequency by stimulation of the STN at 20 Hz, the undamped amplitude of the modelled cortical response increased relative to that with 5 Hz stimulation in both groups (P ≤ 0.005), consistent with resonance. Restoration of dopaminergic input by treatment with levodopa increased the damping of oscillatory activity (as measured by the modelled damping factor) in both patient groups (P ≤0.001). The increased damping would tend to limit resonance, as confirmed in simulations. Our results show that the basal ganglia–cortical network involving the STN has a tendency to resonate at ~ 20 Hz in Parkinsonian patients. This resonance phenomenon may underlie the propagation and amplification of activities synchronized around this frequency. Crucially, dopamine acts to increase damping and thereby limit resonance in this basal ganglia–cortical network.

 
 
 
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