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Articles by J. M Ward
Total Records ( 2 ) for J. M Ward
  S Hoshi , N Hoshi , M Okamoto , J Paiz , T Kusakabe , J. M Ward and S. Kimura

NKX2-1 is a homeodomain transcription factor that is critical for genesis of the thyroid and transcription of the thyroid-specific genes. Nkx2-1-thyroid-conditional hypomorphic mice were previously developed in which Nkx2-1 gene expression is lost in 50% of the thyroid cells. Using this mouse line as compared with wild-type and Nkx2-1 heterozygous mice, a thyroid carcinogenesis study was carried out using the genotoxic carcinogen N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)-nitrosamine (DHPN), followed by sulfadimethoxine (SDM) or the non-genotoxic carcinogen amitrole (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole). A significantly higher incidence of adenomas was obtained in Nkx2-1-thyroid-conditional hypomorphic mice as compared with the other two groups of mice only when they were treated with DHPN + SDM, but not amitrole. A bromodeoxyuridine incorporation study revealed that thyroids of the Nkx2-1-thyroid-conditional hypomorphic mice had >2-fold higher constitutive cell proliferation rate than the other two groups of mice, suggesting that this may be at least partially responsible for the increased incidence of adenoma in this mouse line after genotoxic carcinogen exposure. Thus, NKX2-1 may function to control the proliferation of thyroid follicular cells following damage by a genotoxic carcinogen.

  O. A Maximova , L. J Faucette , J. M Ward , B. R Murphy and A. G. Pletnev

Flaviviruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and St. Louis encephalitis virus are important neurotropic human pathogens, typically causing a devastating and often fatal neuroinfection. Flaviviruses induce neuroinflammation with typical features of viral encephalitides, including inflammatory cell infiltration, activation of microglia, and neuronal degeneration. Development of safe and effective live-virus vaccines against neurotropic flavivirus infections demands a detailed knowledge of their neuropathogenesis in a primate host that is evolutionarily close to humans. Here, we used computerized morphometric analysis to quantitatively assess the cellular inflammatory responses in the central nervous system (CNS) of rhesus monkeys infected with three antigenically divergent attenuated flaviviruses. The kinetics, spatial pattern, and magnitude of microglial activation, trafficking of T and B cells, and changes in T cell subsets within the CNS define unique phenotypic signatures for each of the three viruses. Our results provide a benchmark for investigation of cellular inflammatory responses induced by attenuated flaviviruses in the CNS of primate hosts and provide insight into the neuropathogenesis of flavivirus encephalitis that might guide the development of safe and effective live-virus vaccines. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:973–989, 2009)

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