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Articles by J. K Lee
Total Records ( 2 ) for J. K Lee
  K Hidaka , M Shirai , J. K Lee , T Wakayama , I Kodama , M. D Schneider and T. Morisaki

Rationale: The paucity of specific surface markers for cardiomyocytes and their progenitors has impeded the development of embryonic or pluripotent stem cell–based transplantation therapy. Identification of relevant surface markers may also enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying differentiation.

Objective: Here, we show that cellular prion protein (PrP) serves as an effective surface marker for isolating nascent cardiomyocytes as well as cardiomyogenic progenitors.

Methods and Results: Embryonic stem (or embryo-derived) cells were analyzed using flow cytometry to detect surface expression of PrP and intracellular myosin heavy chain (Myhc) proteins. Sorted cells were then analyzed for their differentiation potential.

Conclusions: PrP+ cells from beating embryoid bodies (EBs) frequently included nascent Myhc+ cardiomyocytes. Cultured PrP+ cells further differentiated, giving rise to cardiac troponin I+ definitive cardiomyocytes with either an atrial or a ventricular identity. These cells were electrophysiologically functional and able to survive in vivo after transplantation. Combining PrP with a second marker, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), enabled us to identify an earlier cardiomyogenic population from prebeating EBs, the PrP+PDGFR+ (PRa) cells. The Myhc PRa cells expressed cardiac transcription factors, such as Nkx2.5, T-box transcription factor 5, and Isl1 (islet LIM homeobox 1), although they were not completely committed. In mouse embryos, PRa cells in cardiac crescent at the 1 to 2 somite stage were Myhc+, whereas they were Myhc at headfold stages. PRa cells clonally expanded in methlycellulose cultures. Furthermore, single Myhc PRa cell–derived colonies contained both cardiac and smooth muscle cells. Thus, PrP demarcates a population of bipotential cardiomyogenic progenitor cells that can differentiate into cardiac or smooth muscle cells.

  J D King , A. C Fitch , J. K Lee , J. E McCane , D. O. D Mak , J. K Foskett and K. R. Hallows

The metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has emerged as an important link between cellular metabolic status and ion transport activity. We previously found that AMPK binds to and phosphorylates CFTR in vitro and inhibits PKA-dependent stimulation of CFTR channel gating in Calu-3 bronchial serous gland epithelial cells. To further characterize the mechanism of AMPK-dependent regulation of CFTR, whole cell patch-clamp measurements were performed with PKA activation in Calu-3 cells expressing either constitutively active or dominant-negative AMPK mutants (AMPK-CA or AMPK-DN). Baseline CFTR conductance in cells expressing AMPK-DN was substantially greater than controls, suggesting that tonic AMPK activity in these cells inhibits CFTR under basal conditions. Although baseline CFTR conductance in cells expressing AMPK-CA was comparable to that of controls, PKA stimulation of CFTR was completely blocked in AMPK-CA-expressing cells, suggesting that AMPK activation renders CFTR resistant to PKA activation in vivo. Phosphorylation studies of CFTR in human embryonic kidney-293 cells using tetracycline-inducible expression of AMPK-DN demonstrated AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of CFTR in vivo. However, AMPK activity modulation had no effect on CFTR in vivo phosphorylation in response to graded doses of PKA or PKC agonists. Thus, AMPK-dependent CFTR phosphorylation renders the channel resistant to activation by PKA and PKC without preventing phosphorylation by these kinases. We found that Ser768, a CFTR R domain residue considered to be an inhibitory PKA site, is the dominant site of AMPK phosphorylation in vitro. Ser-to-Ala mutation at this site enhanced baseline CFTR activity and rendered CFTR resistant to inhibition by AMPK, suggesting that AMPK phosphorylation at Ser768 is required for its inhibition of CFTR. In summary, our findings indicate that AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of CFTR inhibits CFTR activation by PKA, thereby tuning the PKA-responsiveness of CFTR to metabolic and other stresses in the cell.

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