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Articles by J. J. P Kastelein
Total Records ( 4 ) for J. J. P Kastelein
  R Franssen , S. G Young , F Peelman , J Hertecant , J. A Sierts , A. W. M Schimmel , A Bensadoun , J. J. P Kastelein , L. G Fong , G. M Dallinga Thie and A. P. Beigneux
 

Background— Recent studies in mice have established that an endothelial cell protein, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), is essential for the lipolytic processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

Methods and Results— We report the discovery of a homozygous missense mutation in GPIHBP1 in a young boy with severe chylomicronemia. The mutation, p.C65Y, replaces a conserved cysteine in the GPIHBP1 lymphocyte antigen 6 domain with a tyrosine and is predicted to perturb protein structure by interfering with the formation of a disulfide bond. Studies with transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells showed that GPIHBP1-C65Y reaches the cell surface but has lost the ability to bind lipoprotein lipase (LPL). When the GPIHBP1-C65Y homozygote was given an intravenous bolus of heparin, only trace amounts of LPL entered the plasma. We also observed very low levels of LPL in the postheparin plasma of a subject with chylomicronemia who was homozygous for a different GPIHBP1 mutation (p.Q115P). When the GPIHBP1-Q115P homozygote was given a 6-hour infusion of heparin, a significant amount of LPL appeared in the plasma, resulting in a fall in the plasma triglyceride levels from 1780 to 120 mg/dL.

Conclusions— We identified a novel GPIHBP1 missense mutation (p.C65Y) associated with defective LPL binding in a young boy with severe chylomicronemia. We also show that homozygosity for the C65Y or Q115P mutations is associated with low levels of LPL in the postheparin plasma, demonstrating that GPIHBP1 is important for plasma triglyceride metabolism in humans.

  R Duivenvoorden , E VanBavel , E de Groot , E. S. G Stroes , J. A Disselhorst , B. A Hutten , J. S Lameris , J. J. P Kastelein and A. J. Nederveen
  Background—

Low endothelial shear stress (ESS) elicits endothelial dysfunction. However, the relationship between ESS and arterial remodeling and arterial stiffness is unknown in humans. We developed a 3.0-T MRI protocol to evaluate the contribution of ESS to arterial remodeling and stiffness.

Methods and Results—

Fifteen young (aged 26±3 years) and 15 older (aged 57±3 years) healthy volunteers as well as 15 patients with cardiovascular disease (aged 63±10 years) were enrolled. Phase-contrast MRI of the common carotid arteries was used to derive ESS data from the spatial velocity gradients close to the arterial wall. ESS measurements were performed on 3 occasions and showed excellent reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.79). Multiple linear regression analysis accounting for age and blood pressure revealed that ESS was an independent predictor of the following response variables: carotid wall thickness (regression coefficient [b], –0.19 mm2 per N/m2; P=0.02), lumen area (b, –15.5 mm2 per N/m2; P<0.001), and vessel size (b, –24.0 mm2 per N/m2; P<0.001). Segments of the artery wall exposed to lower ESS were significantly thicker than segments exposed to higher ESS within the same artery (P=0.009). Furthermore, ESS was associated with arterial compliance, accounting for age, blood pressure, and wall thickness (b, –0.003 mm2/mm Hg per N/m2; P=0.04).

Conclusions—

Our carotid MRI data show that ESS is an important determinant of arterial remodeling and arterial stiffness in humans. The data warrant further studies to evaluate use of carotid ESS as a noninvasive tool to improve the understanding of individual cardiovascular disease risk and to assess novel drug therapies in cardiovascular disease prevention.

  P. M Ridker , J. G MacFadyen , B. G Nordestgaard , W Koenig , J. J. P Kastelein , J Genest and R. J. Glynn
  Background—

Recent primary prevention guidelines issued in Canada endorse the use of statin therapy among individuals at "intermediate risk" who have elevated levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). However, trial data directly addressing whether this recommendation defines a patient population in which statin therapy is effective have not previously been published.

Methods and Results—

In the Justification for Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial, which demonstrated a 44% reduction in first vascular events when rosuvastatin 20 mg was compared with placebo among 17 802 primary prevention patients with LDL cholesterol <130 mg/dL and hsCRP ≥2 mg/L, 6091 participants (2525 women, 3566 men) had baseline estimated 10-year Framingham risks of 5% to 10% and 7340 participants (1404 women, 5936 men) had baseline estimated Framingham risk of 11% to 20%. In these 2 "intermediate risk" subgroups, relative risk reductions consistent with the overall trial treatment effect were observed (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.84; 5-year number needed to treat=40, P=0.005 for those with 5% to 10% risk; hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.68, 5-year number needed to treat=18, P<0.0001 for those with 11% to 20% risk). Use of the Reynolds Risk Score to stratify the study population gave similar results but reclassified large numbers of individuals into lower- or higher-risk groups. The majority of women with elevated hsCRP who benefited from rosuvastatin were at 5% to 10% 10-year risk at study entry using either global risk scoring system.

Conclusions—

Consistent with recent evidence-based Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for primary prevention, the JUPITER trial demonstrates that rosuvastatin 20 mg significantly reduces major cardiovascular events among men and women with elevated hsCRP and "intermediate risk" defined either as 5% to 10% or 10% to 20% 10-year risk.

Clinical Trial Registration—

URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00239681.

  B. J Arsenault , I Lemieux , J. P Despres , N. J Wareham , E. S. G Stroes , J. J. P Kastelein , K. T Khaw and S. M. Boekholdt
 

Background: Gradient gel electrophoresis (GGE) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are both widely accepted methods for measuring LDL and HDL particle size. However, whether or not GGE- or NMR-measured LDL or HDL particle size predicts coronary heart disease (CHD) risk to a similar extent is currently unknown.

Methods: We used GGE and NMR to measure LDL and HDL particle size in a nested case-control study of 1025 incident cases of CHD and 1915 controls from the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)-Norfolk study. The study sample included apparently healthy men and women age 45–79 years followed for an average of 6 years.

Results: Pearson correlation coefficients showed that the overall agreement between NMR and GGE was better for the measurement of HDL size (r = 0.78) than for LDL size (r = 0.47). The odds ratio for future CHD among participants in the bottom tertile of LDL size (smallest LDL particles) was 1.35 (95% CI, 1.12–1.63) for GGE and 1.74 (1.41–2.15) for NMR. For HDL size, these respective odds ratios were 1.41 (1.16–1.72) and 1.85 (1.47–2.32). After adjustment for potential confounders, the relationship between small LDL or HDL particles and CHD was no longer significant, irrespective of the method.

Conclusions: In this prospective population study, we found that the relationships between NMR-measured LDL and HDL sizes and CHD risk were slightly higher than those obtained with GGE.

 
 
 
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