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Articles by J. H Lee
Total Records ( 11 ) for J. H Lee
  K Liu , S Zhou , J. Y Kim , K Tillison , D Majors , D Rearick , J. H Lee , R. F Fernandez Boyanapalli , K Barricklow , M. S Houston and C. M. Smas
 

The adipocyte-specific protein FSP27, also known as CIDEC, is one of three cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector (CIDE) proteins. The first known function for CIDEs was promotion of apoptosis upon ectopic expression in mammalian cells. Recent studies in endogenous settings demonstrated key roles for CIDEs in energy metabolism. FSP27 is a lipid droplet-associated protein whose heterologous expression enhances formation of enlarged lipid droplets and is required for unilocular lipid droplets typical of white adipocytes in vivo. Here, we delineate relationships between apoptotic function and lipid droplet localization of FSP27. We demonstrate that ectopic expression of FSP27 induces enlarged lipid droplets in multiple human cell lines, which is indicative that its mechanism involves ubiquitously present, rather than adipocyte-specific, cellular machinery. Furthermore, promotion of lipid droplet formation in HeLa cells via culture in exogenous oleic acid offsets FSP27-mediated apoptosis. Using transient cotransfections and analysis of lipid droplets in HeLa cells stably expressing FSP27, we show that FSP27 does not protect lipid droplets from action of ATGL lipase. Domain mapping with eGFP-FSP27 deletion constructs indicates that lipid droplet localization of FSP27 requires amino acids 174–192 of its CIDE C domain. The apoptotic mechanism of FSP27, which we show involves caspase-9 and mitochondrial cytochrome c, also requires this 19-amino acid region. Interaction assays determine the FSP27 CIDE C domain complexes with CIDEA, and Western blot reveals that FSP27 protein levels are reduced by coexpression of CIDEA. Overall, our findings demonstrate the function of the FSP27 CIDE C domain and/or regions thereof for apoptosis, lipid droplet localization, and CIDEA interaction.

  H. S Na , J. H Lee , J. Y Hwang , J. H Ryu , S. H Han , Y. T Jeon and S. H. Do
  Background

In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, we evaluated the effects of magnesium sulphate on neuromuscular blocking agent requirements and analgesia in children with cerebral palsy (CP).

Methods

We randomly divided 61 children with CP undergoing orthopaedic surgery into two groups. The magnesium group (Group M) received magnesium sulphate 50 mg kg–1 i.v. as a bolus and 15 mg kg–1 h–1 by continuous infusion during the operation. The control group (Group S) received the same amount of isotonic saline. Rocuronium was administered 0.6 mg kg–1 before intubation and 0.1 mg kg–1 additionally when train-of-four counts were 2 or more. I.V. fentanyl and ketorolac were used to control postoperative pain. Total infused analgesic volumes and pain scores were evaluated at postoperative 30 min, and at 6, 24, and 48 h.

Results

The rocuronium requirement of Group M was significantly less than that of Group S [0.29 (0.12) vs 0.42 (0.16) mg kg–1 h–1, P<0.05]. Cumulative analgesic consumption in Group M was significantly less after operation at 24 and 48 h (P<0.05), and pain scores in Group M were lower than in Group S during the entire postoperative period (P<0.05). Serum magnesium concentrations in Group M were higher until 24 h after operation (P<0.05). The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and rescue drug injections was similar in the two groups. No shivering or adverse effects related to hypermagnesaemia were encountered.

Conclusions

I.V. magnesium sulphate reduces rocuronium requirements and postoperative analgesic consumption in children with CP.

  S Kim , H. Y Kang , E. H Nam , M. S Choi , X. F Zhao , C. S Hong , J. W Lee , J. H Lee and Y. K. Park
 

TMPRSS4 is a novel type II transmembrane serine protease that is highly expressed on the cell surface in pancreatic, thyroid and other cancer tissues, although its oncogenic significance and molecular mechanisms are unknown. Previously, we have shown that TMPRSS4 promotes invasion, migration and metastasis of human tumor cells by facilitating an epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this study, we explored the molecular basis underlying TMPRSS4-mediated effects. We show that multiple downstream signaling pathways, including focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Akt, Src and Rac1, are activated by TMPRSS4 expression and that FAK signaling and ERK activation are required for TMPRSS4-induced invasiveness and EMT, including cadherin switch. Inhibition of PI3K or Src reduced invasiveness and actin rearrangement mediated by TMPRSS4 without restoring E-cadherin expression. Downregulation of E-cadherin was required for TMPRSS4-mediated effects but was not sufficient to induce EMT and invasion. TMPRSS4 induced integrin 5 expression and its signal transduction, leading to invasiveness and EMT accompanied by downregulation of E-cadherin. Functional blocking confirmed that integrin 5β1 is a critical signaling molecule that is sufficient to induce TMPRSS4-mediated effects. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that TMPRSS4 expression was significantly higher in human colorectal cancer tissues from advanced stages than in that of early stage. Furthermore, upregulation of TMPRSS4 was correlated with enhanced integrin 5 expression. These observations implicate integrin 5 upregulation as a molecular mechanism by which TMPRSS4 induces invasion and contributes to cancer progression.

  S. H Choi , R Harkewicz , J. H Lee , A Boullier , F Almazan , A. C Li , J. L Witztum , Y. S Bae and Y. I. Miller
 

Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 recognizes microbial pathogens, such as lipopolysaccharide, and mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory cytokine secretion, as well as microbial uptake by macrophages. In addition to exogenous pathogens, TLR4 recognizes modified self, such as minimally oxidized low-density lipoprotein (mmLDL). Here we report that mmLDL and its active components, cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides, induce TLR4-dependent fluid phase uptake typical of macropinocytosis. We show that mmLDL induced recruitment of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) to a TLR4 signaling complex, TLR4 phosphorylation, activation of a Vav1-Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 signaling cascade, phosphorylation of paxillin, and activation of Rac, Cdc42, and Rho. These mmLDL-induced and TLR4- and Syk-dependent signaling events and cytoskeletal rearrangements lead to enhanced uptake of small molecules, dextran, and, most importantly, both native and oxidized LDL, resulting in intracellular lipid accumulation. An intravenous injection of fluorescently labeled mmLDL in wild-type mice resulted in its rapid accumulation in circulating monocytes, which was significantly attenuated in TLR4-deficient mice. These data describe a novel mechanism leading to enhanced lipoprotein uptake in macrophages that would contribute to foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. These data also suggest that cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides are an endogenous ligand for TLR4. Because TLR4 is highly expressed on the surface of circulating monocytes in patients with chronic inflammatory conditions, and cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides are present in plasma, lipid uptake by monocytes in circulation may contribute to the pathological roles of monocytes in chronic inflammatory diseases.

  S. J Park , Y. H Kim , D. W Park , S. W Lee , W. J Kim , J Suh , S. C Yun , C. W Lee , M. K Hong , J. H Lee , S. W Park and for the MAIN COMPARE Investigators
 

Background— Although intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance has been useful in stenting for unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis, its impact on long-term mortality is still unclear.

Methods and Results— In the MAIN-COMPARE registry, patients with unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis in a hemodynamically stable condition underwent elective stenting under the guidance of IVUS (756 patients) or conventional angiography (219 patients). Patients with acute myocardial infarction were excluded. The 3-year outcomes between the 2 groups were primarily compared using propensity-score matching in the entire and separate populations according to stent type. In 201 matched pairs of the overall population, there was a tendency of lower risk of 3-year morality with IVUS guidance compared with angiography guidance (6.0% versus 13.6%, log-rank P=0.063; hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.28 to 1.03; Cox-model P=0.061). In particular, in 145 matched pairs of patients receiving drug-eluting stent, the 3-year incidence of mortality was lower with IVUS guidance as compared with angiography guidance (4.7% versus 16.0%, log-rank P=0.048; hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.15 to 1.02; Cox model P=0.055). In contrast, the use of IVUS guidance did not reduce the risk of mortality in 47 matched pairs of patients receiving bare-metal stent (8.6% versus 10.8%, log-rank P=0.35; hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.18 to 1.91; Cox model P=0.38). The risk of myocardial infarction or target vessel revascularization was not associated with the use of IVUS guidance.

Conclusions— Elective stenting with IVUS guidance, especially in the placement of drug-eluting stent, may reduce the long-term mortality rate for unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis when compared with conventional angiography guidance.

  D Yip , M. N Le , J. L. K Chan , J. H Lee , J. A Mehnert , A Yudd , J Kempf , W. J Shih , S Chen and J. S. Goydos
 

Purpose: Ectopic expression of GRM1 in murine melanocytes results in transformation into a form of melanoma, and more than 60% of human melanoma samples tested ectopically express GRM1. Stimulation of this receptor in vitro results in up-regulation of activated extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, a xenograft model of melanoma treated with riluzole, an oral GRM1 blocking agent, showed decreased tumor growth compared with the untreated controls. We have now completed a phase 0 trial of riluzole in patients with melanoma.

Experimental Design: Patients enrolled on this trial underwent a pretreatment biopsy, took 200 mg of oral riluzole per day for 14 days, and then underwent resection of their remaining tumor. We compared the levels of pERK and pAKT in the pretreatment and post-treatment samples and assessed the metabolic activity of pretreatment and post-treatment tumors using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scanning.

Results: We accrued 12 patients and all expressed GRM1. We found a significant decrease in pAKT and/or pERK in post-treatment tumor samples as compared with pretreatment samples in 4 (34%) patients. These four patients had a significant decrease in FDG-PET intensity post-treatment as well. Two other patients had a clinical response with no corresponding metabolic response; five patients had similar pretreatment and post-treatment FDG-PET scan findings; and one patient had progressive disease.

Conclusions: Our data show that glutamate blockade with riluzole can inhibit signaling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathways and suppress the metabolic activity of melanoma. The ectopic expression of metabotropic glutamate receptors may be important in the pathogenesis of human melanoma, and targeting this pathway may be an effective therapy.

  J. H Lee , B. J Han , H. J Lim , Y. D Kim , N Saxena and T. M. Chung
 

In recent years, high-bandwidth and low-cost wireless technologies have emerged as a competitive element, enabling the smart home environment. On the other hand, with the increasing demands for various services, the current access point allocation schemes give rise to significant challenges for a stable connection service, bandwidth and load distribution. In this paper, we present an optimal access point allocation scheme based on genetic algorithm that attempts to optimize multiple parameters, such as bandwidth, and load-balancing requirements. The proposed allocation scheme provides a set of approximately efficient solutions, which allows a wireless user to choose an access point based on its capacity and load balancing, not only regarding its signaling strength or service set identifier. The simulation results are provided to demonstrate the impact of the proposed optimization procedure on overall system performance in terms of connection distribution, load balancing and call dropping probability.

  Z Palfi , N Jae , C Preusser , K. H Kaminska , J. M Bujnicki , J. H Lee , A Gunzl , C Kambach , H Urlaub and A. Bindereif
 

Spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) in trypanosomes contain either the canonical heptameric Sm ring (U1, U5, spliced leader snRNPs), or variant Sm cores with snRNA-specific Sm subunits (U2, U4 snRNPs). Searching for specificity factors, we identified SMN and Gemin2 proteins that are highly divergent from known orthologs. SMN is splicing-essential in trypanosomes and nuclear-localized, suggesting that Sm core assembly in trypanosomes is nuclear. We demonstrate in vitro that SMN is sufficient to confer specificity of canonical Sm core assembly and to discriminate against binding to nonspecific RNA and to U2 and U4 snRNAs. SMN interacts transiently with the SmD3B subcomplex, contacting specifically SmB. SMN remains associated throughout the assembly of the Sm heteroheptamer and dissociates only when a functional Sm site is incorporated. These data establish a novel role of SMN, mediating snRNP specificity in Sm core assembly, and yield new biochemical insight into the mechanism of SMN activity.

  J. H Lee , J Gaetz , B Bugarija , C. J Fernandes , G. E Snyder , E. C Bush and B. T. Lahn
 

We recently described two opposing states of transcriptional competency. One is termed ‘competent’ whereby a gene is capable of responding to trans-acting transcription factors of the cell, such that it is active if appropriate transcriptional activators are present, though it can also be silent if activators are absent or repressors are present. The other is termed ‘occluded’ whereby a gene is silenced by cis-acting, chromatin-based mechanisms in a manner that blocks it from responding to trans-acting factors, such that it is silent even when activators are present in the cellular milieu. We proposed that gene occlusion is a mechanism by which differentiated cells stably maintain their phenotypic identities. Here, we describe chromatin analysis of occluded genes. We found that DNA methylation plays a causal role in maintaining occlusion for a subset of occluded genes. We further examined a variety of other chromatin marks typically associated with transcriptional silencing, including histone variants, covalent histone modifications and chromatin-associated proteins. Surprisingly, we found that although many of these marks are robustly linked to silent genes (which include both occluded genes and genes that are competent but silent), none is linked specifically to occluded genes. Although the observation does not rule out a possible causal role of these chromatin marks in occlusion, it does suggest that these marks might be secondary effect rather than primary cause of the silent state in many genes.

  S Hunter , K Love Jackson , R Abdulla , W Zhu , J. H Lee , K. J Wells and R. Roetzheim
  Background

Elementary schools represent both a source of childhood sun exposure and a setting for educational interventions.

Methods

Sun Protection of Florida's Children was a cluster randomized trial promoting hat use at (primary outcome) and outside of schools among fourth-grade students during August 8, 2006, through May 22, 2007. Twenty-two schools were randomly assigned to the intervention (1115 students) or control group (1376 students). Intervention schools received classroom sessions targeting sun protection attitudes and social norms. Each student attending an intervention school received two free wide-brimmed hats. Hat use at school was measured by direct observation and hat use outside of school was measured by self-report. A subgroup of 378 students (178 in the intervention group and 200 in the control group) underwent serial measurements of skin pigmentation to explore potential physiological effects of the intervention. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate the intervention effect by accounting for the cluster randomized trial design. All P values were two-sided and were claimed as statistically significant at a level of .05.

Results

The percentage of students observed wearing hats at control schools remained essentially unchanged during the school year (baseline = 2%, fall = 0%, and spring = 1%) but increased statistically significantly at intervention schools (baseline = 2%, fall = 30%, and spring = 41%) (P < .001 for intervention effect comparing the change in rate of hat use over time at intervention vs control schools). Self-reported use of hats outside of school did not change statistically significantly during the study (control: baseline = 14%, fall = 14%, and spring = 11%; intervention: baseline = 24%, fall = 24%, and spring = 23%) nor did measures of skin pigmentation.

Conclusions

The intervention increased use of hats among fourth-grade students at school but had no effect on self-reported wide-brimmed hat use outside of school or on measures of skin pigmentation.

  A. Y Kim , Y. S Lee , K. H Kim , J. H Lee , H. K Lee , S. H Jang , S. E Kim , G. Y Lee , J. W Lee , S. A Jung , H. Y Chung , S Jeong and J. B. Kim
 

In obesity, dysregulation of adipocytokines is involved in several pathological conditions including diabetes and certain cancers. As a member of the adipocytokines, adiponectin plays crucial roles in whole-body energy homeostasis. Recently, it has been reported that the level of plasma adiponectin is reduced in several types of cancer patients. However, it is largely unknown whether and how adiponectin affects colon cancer cell growth. Here, we show that adiponectin suppresses the proliferation of colon cancer cells including HCT116, HT29, and LoVo. In colon cancer cells, adiponectin attenuated cell cycle progression at the G1/S boundary and concurrently increased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors such as p21 and p27. Adiponectin stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation whereas inhibition of AMPK activity blunted the effect of adiponectin on the proliferation of colon cancer cells. Furthermore, knockdown of adiponectin receptors such as AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 relieved the suppressive effect of adiponectin on the growth of colon cancer cells. In addition, adiponectin repressed the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, which is a key lipogenic transcription factor associated with colon cancers. These results suggest that adiponectin could inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells through stimulating AMPK activity.

 
 
 
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