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Articles by J. G Smith
Total Records ( 2 ) for J. G Smith
  J. G Smith , O Melander , H Lovkvist , B Hedblad , G Engstrom , P Nilsson , J Carlson , G Berglund , B Norrving and A. Lindgren
 

Background— Epidemiological studies indicate a genetic contribution to ischemic stroke risk, but specific genetic variants remain unknown, with the exception of a few rare variants. Recent genome-wide association studies identified and replicated common genetic variants on chromosome 9p21 to confer risk of coronary heart disease. We examined whether these variants are associated with ischemic stroke.

Methods and Results— We genotyped 6 common genetic variants on chromosome 9p21, previously associated with coronary artery disease in genome-wide association studies, in 2 population-based studies in southern Sweden, the Lund Stroke Register (n=1837 cases, 947 controls) and the Malmö Diet and Cancer study (MDC; n=888 cases, 893 controls). We examined association in each study and in the pooled dataset. Adjustments were made for cardiovascular risk factors and further for previous myocardial infarction in MDC. We found a modest increase in ischemic stroke risk for 2 common (minor allele frequencies 0.46 to 0.49) variants, rs2383207 (P=0.04 in Lund Stroke Register, P=0.01 in MDC) and rs10757274 (P=0.03 in Lund Stroke Register, P=0.03 in MDC), in each sample independently. The strength of the association increased when samples were pooled with an odds ratio of 1.15 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.25; P=0.002) for the strongest variant rs2383207. Results were similar after adjustment for clinical covariates. rs1333049 also showed significant association in MDC, which increased in the pooled sample (P=0.004).

Conclusions— In this large sample (n=4565), we detected common genetic determinants for ischemic stroke on chromosome 9p21. Our findings indicate that ischemic stroke shares pathophysiological determinants with coronary heart disease and other arterial diseases and highlight the need for large sample sizes in stroke genetics.

  H. M Alloush , E Anderson , A. D Martin , M. W Ruddock , J. E Angell , P. J Hill , P Mehta , M. A Smith , J. G Smith and V. C. Salisbury
  BACKGROUND:

The nucleoside analog cytarabine (Ara-C [cytosine arabinoside]) is the key agent for treating acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, up to 30% of patients fail to respond to treatment. Screening of patient blood samples to determine drug response before commencement of treatment is needed. This project aimed to construct and evaluate a self-bioluminescent reporter strain of Escherichia coli for use as an Ara-C biosensor and to design an in vitro assay to predict Ara-C response in clinical samples.

METHODS:

We used transposition mutagenesis to create a cytidine deaminase (cdd)-deficient mutant of E. coli MG1655 that responded to Ara-C. The strain was transformed with the luxCDABE operon and used as a whole-cell biosensor for development an 8-h assay to determine Ara-C uptake and phosphorylation by leukemic cells.

RESULTS:

Intracellular concentrations of 0.025 µmol/L phosphorylated Ara-C were detected by significantly increased light output (P < 0.05) from the bacterial biosensor. Results using AML cell lines with known response to Ara-C showed close correlation between the 8-h assay and a 3-day cytotoxicity test for Ara-C cell killing. In retrospective tests with 24 clinical samples of bone marrow or peripheral blood, the biosensor-based assay predicted leukemic cell response to Ara-C within 8 h.

CONCLUSIONS:

The biosensor-based assay may offer a predictor for evaluating the sensitivity of leukemic cells to Ara-C before patients undergo chemotherapy and allow customized treatment of drug-sensitive patients with reduced Ara-C dose levels. The 8-h assay monitors intracellular Ara-CTP (cytosine arabinoside triphosphate) levels and, if fully validated, may be suitable for use in clinical settings.

 
 
 
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