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Articles by J. F Thompson
Total Records ( 4 ) for J. F Thompson
  R Sofat , A. D Hingorani , L Smeeth , S. E Humphries , P. J Talmud , J Cooper , T Shah , M. S Sandhu , S. L Ricketts , S. M Boekholdt , N Wareham , K. T Khaw , M Kumari , M Kivimaki , M Marmot , F. W Asselbergs , P van der Harst , R. P.F Dullaart , G Navis , D. J van Veldhuisen , W. H Van Gilst , J. F Thompson , P McCaskie , L. J Palmer , M Arca , F Quagliarini , C Gaudio , F Cambien , V Nicaud , O Poirer , V Gudnason , A Isaacs , J. C.M Witteman , C. M van Duijn , M Pencina , R. S Vasan , R. B D'Agostino , J Ordovas , T. Y Li , S Kakko , H Kauma , M. J Savolainen , Y. A Kesaniemi , A Sandhofer , B Paulweber , J. V Sorli , A Goto , S Yokoyama , K Okumura , B. D Horne , C Packard , D Freeman , I Ford , N Sattar , V McCormack , D. A Lawlor , S Ebrahim , G. D Smith , J. J.P Kastelein , J Deanfield and J. P. Casas

Background— Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, but torcetrapib, the first-in-class inhibitor tested in a large outcome trial, caused an unexpected blood pressure elevation and increased cardiovascular events. Whether the hypertensive effect resulted from CETP inhibition or an off-target action of torcetrapib has been debated. We hypothesized that common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CETP gene could help distinguish mechanism-based from off-target actions of CETP inhibitors to inform on the validity of CETP as a therapeutic target.

Methods and Results— We compared the effect of CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms and torcetrapib treatment on lipid fractions, blood pressure, and electrolytes in up to 67 687 individuals from genetic studies and 17 911 from randomized trials. CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms and torcetrapib treatment reduced CETP activity and had a directionally concordant effect on 8 lipid and lipoprotein traits (total, low-density lipoprotein, and HDL cholesterol; HDL2; HDL3; apolipoproteins A-I and B; and triglycerides), with the genetic effect on HDL cholesterol (0.13 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11 to 0.14 mmol/L) being consistent with that expected of a 10-mg dose of torcetrapib (0.13 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.15). In trials, 60 mg of torcetrapib elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4.47 mm Hg (95% CI 4.10 to 4.84 mm Hg) and 2.08 mm Hg (95% CI 1.84 to 2.31 mm Hg), respectively. However, the effect of CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms on systolic blood pressure (0.16 mm Hg, 95% CI –0.28 to 0.60 mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure (–0.04 mm Hg, 95% CI –0.36 to 0.28 mm Hg) was null and significantly different from that expected of 10 mg of torcetrapib.

Conclusions— Discordance in the effects of CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms and torcetrapib treatment on blood pressure despite the concordant effects on lipids indicates the hypertensive action of torcetrapib is unlikely to be due to CETP inhibition or shared by chemically dissimilar CETP inhibitors. Genetic studies could find a place in drug-development programs as a new source of randomized evidence for drug-target validation in humans.

  J. F Thompson , C. L Hyde , L. S Wood , S. A Paciga , D. A Hinds , D. R Cox , G. K Hovingh and J. J.P. Kastelein

Background— Statins are effective at lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reducing risk of cardiovascular disease, but variability in response is not well understood. To address this, 5745 individuals from the Treating to New Targets (TNT) trial were genotyped in a combination of a whole-genome and candidate gene approach to identify associations with response to atorvastatin treatment.

Methods and Results— A total of 291 988 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 1984 individuals were analyzed for association with statin response, followed by genotyping top hits in 3761 additional individuals. None was significant at the whole-genome level in either the initial or follow-up test sets for association with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglyceride response. In addition to the whole-genome platform, 23 candidate genes previously associated with statin response were analyzed in these 5745 individuals. Three SNPs in apoE were most highly associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol response, followed by 1 in PCSK9 with a similar effect size. At the candidate gene level, SNPs in HMGCR were also significant though the effect was less than with those in apoE and PCSK9. rs7412/apoE had the most significant association (P=6x10–30), and its high significance in the whole-genome study (P=4x10–9) confirmed the suitability of this population for detecting effects. Age and gender were found to influence low-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to a similar extent as the most pronounced genetic effects.

Conclusions— Among SNPs tested with an allele frequency of at least 5%, only SNPs in apoE are found to influence statin response significantly. Less frequent variants in PCSK9 and smaller effect sizes in SNPs in HMGCR were also revealed.

  C. L Hyde , A MacInnes , F. A Sanders , J. F Thompson , R. A Mazzarella , O Faergeman , D. F van Wijk , L Wood , M Lira and S. A. Paciga

Background— There is mounting evidence to suggest that chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) plays an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. A naturally occurring variant of the CCR5 gene CCR532, exists at allele frequencies of typically 10% in European populations and results in a nonfunctional CCR5 receptor.

Methods and Results— The CCR532 deletion and 26 other variants within the chemokine receptor 2-CCR5-chemokine receptor-like protein 2 (CCRL2) gene cluster spanning 59 kilobases of chromosome 3 were genotyped in 5748 subjects from the Treating to New Targets atorvastatin trial to determine whether genetic associations could be identified with circulating lipid values and cardiovascular disease. Our results demonstrate an association between the CCR532 deletion and increased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased plasma triglycerides, both of which are beneficial from a cardiovascular perspective. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1154428, rs6808835, and rs6791599) in CCRL2 in linkage disequilibrium (r2≥0.65) with CCR532 and located up to 45 kilobases distal to it were associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides findings were replicated in an additional set of >6000 individuals from the Incremental Decrease in Endpoints through Aggressive Lipid Lowering atorvastatin trial.

Conclusions— Our study provides evidence that a locus within the region of the genome encompassing the CCR5-CCRL2 region is associated with lipid levels and suggests that chemokine activity influences lipid levels in populations with preexisting cardiovascular disease.

Clinical Trial Registration— Identifier: TNT, NCT00327691; IDEAL, NCT00159835.

  J Zhu , J Gardner , C. R Pullinger , J. P Kane , J. F Thompson and O. L. Francone

Given the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the world, the search for genetic variations controlling the levels of risk factors associated with the development of the disease continues. Multiple genetic association studies suggest the involvement of procollagen C-proteinase enhancer-2 (PCPE2) in modulating HDL-C levels. Therefore biochemical and mechanistic studies were undertaken to determine whether there might be a basis for a role of PCPE2 in HDL biogenesis. Our studies indicate that PCPE2 accelerates the proteolytic processing of pro-apolipoprotein (apo) AI by enhancing the cleavage of the hexapeptide extension present at the N terminus of apoAI. Surface Plasmon Resonance and immunoprecipitation studies indicate that PCPE2 interacts with BMP-1 and pro-apoAI to form a ternary pro-apoAI/BMP-1/PCPE2 complex. The most favorable interaction among these proteins begins with the association of BMP-1 to pro-apoAI followed by the binding of PCPE2 which further stabilizes the complex. PCPE2 resides, along with apoAI, on the HDL fraction of lipoproteins in human plasma supporting a relationship between HDL and PCPE2. Taken together, the findings from our studies identify a new player in the regulation of apoAI post-translational processing and open a new avenue to the study of mechanisms involved in the regulation of apoAI synthesis, HDL levels, and potentially, cardiovascular disease.

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