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Articles by J. D. Hayes
Total Records ( 2 ) for J. D. Hayes
  A.K MacLeod , M McMahon , S. M Plummer , L. G Higgins , T. M Penning , K Igarashi and J. D. Hayes
 

To better understand the role of transcription factor NF-E2-related factor (NRF) 2 in the human and its contribution to cancer chemoprevention, we have knocked down its negative regulators, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) and broad-complex, tramtrack and bric à brac and cap'n'collar homology 1 (BACH1), in HaCaT keratinocytes. Whole-genome microarray revealed that knockdown of KEAP1 resulted in 23 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) being up-regulated ≥2.0-fold. mRNA for aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1B10, AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 were induced to the greatest extent, showing increases of between 12- and 16-fold, whereas mRNA for glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic and modifier subunits, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 and haem oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) were induced between 2.0- and 4.8-fold. Knockdown of BACH1 increased HMOX1 135-fold but induced the other genes examined to a maximum of only 2.7-fold. Activation of NRF2, by KEAP1 knockdown, caused a 75% increase in the amount of glutathione in HaCaT cells and a 1.4- to 1.6-fold increase in their resistance to the electrophiles acrolein, chlorambucil and cumene hydroperoxide (CuOOH), as well as the redox-cycling agent menadione. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis during KEAP1 knockdown, by treatment with buthionine sulfoximine, abrogated resistance to acrolein, chlorambucil and CuOOH, but not to menadione. In contrast, knockdown of BACH1 did not increase glutathione levels or resistance to xenobiotics. Knockdown of NRF2 in HaCaT cells decreased glutathione to ~80% of normal homeostatic levels and similarly reduced their tolerance of electrophiles. Thus, the KEAP1–NRF2 pathway determines resistance to electrophiles and redox-cycling compounds in human keratinocytes through glutathione-dependent and glutathione-independent mechanisms. This study also shows that AKR1B10, AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 proteins have potential utility as biomarkers for NRF2 activation in the human.

  M. O Kelleher , M McMahon , I. M Eggleston , M. J Dixon , K Taguchi , M Yamamoto and J. D. Hayes
 

Epithionitriles represent a previously unrecognized class of cancer chemopreventive phytochemical generated from alkenyl glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables. In rat liver RL-34 epithelial cells, 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane (CETP), 1-cyano-3,4-epithiobutane (CETB) and 1-cyano-4,5-epithiopentane (CETPent) were shown to induce cytoprotective enzymes including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione (GSH) S-transferase A3 and the glutamate–cysteine ligase modifier subunit; CETP was more potent in this regard than were either CETB or CETPent, with 50 µM CETP eliciting a remarkable ~10-fold induction of NQO1. Furthermore, 50 µM CETP stimulated a 2.0-fold overproduction of GSH in RL-34 cells. Transfection experiments demonstrated that epithionitriles induced gene expression through an antioxidant response element (ARE) and that transactivation of an Nqo1-luciferase reporter plasmid was dependent on NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a cap'n'collar basic region leucine zipper transcription factor. Evidence is presented that CETP affected Nrf2-mediated induction of ARE-driven transcription by inhibiting Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), a ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor that negatively regulates Nrf2. We found that Nqo1 was expressed constitutively at high levels in Keap1–/– mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and it was not further induced by CETP. However, knock-in of mouse Keap1 or zebrafish Keap1a into Keap1–/– MEFs repressed Nqo1-luciferase reporter gene activity, but repression by the murine or zebrafish proteins was antagonized by CETP. Pre-treatment of Nrf2+/+ MEFs, but not Nrf2–/– MEFs, with 15 µM CETP for 24 h conferred 2.4-fold resistance against subsequent exposure to the ,β-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein, indicating that the phytochemical exerts chemopreventive properties against genotoxic xenobiotics.

 
 
 
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