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Articles by J. D Paonessa
Total Records ( 3 ) for J. D Paonessa
  A Bhattacharya , L Tang , Y Li , F Geng , J. D Paonessa , S. C Chen , M. K.K Wong and Y. Zhang
 

Bladder cancer is one of the common human cancers and also has a very high recurrence rate. There is a great need for agents capable of inhibiting bladder cancer development and recurrence. Here, we report that allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), an ingredient of many common cruciferous vegetables, potently inhibited the proliferation of bladder carcinoma cell lines in vitro [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.7–3.3 µM], which was associated with profound G2/M arrest and apoptosis. In contrast, AITC was markedly less toxic to normal human bladder epithelial cells (IC50 of 69.4 µM). AITC was then evaluated in two rat bladder cancer models in vivo (an orthotopic model and a subcutaneous model). The orthotopic model closely mimics human bladder cancer development and recurrence. We show that a low oral dose of AITC (1 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the development and muscle invasion of the orthotopic bladder cancers but was ineffective against the subcutaneous xenografts of the same cancer cells in the same animals. This differential effect was explained by our finding that urinary levels of AITC equivalent were two to three orders of magnitude higher than that in the plasma and that its levels in the orthotopic cancer tissues were also three orders of magnitude higher than that in the subcutaneous cancer tissues. Moreover, we show that AITC is a multi-targeted agent against bladder cancer. In conclusion, AITC is selectively delivered to bladder cancer tissue through urinary excretion and potently inhibits bladder cancer development and invasion.

  Y Ding , J. D Paonessa , K. L Randall , D Argoti , L Chen , P Vouros and Y. Zhang
 

Sulforaphane (SF) is a well-known chemopreventive phytochemical and occurs in broccoli and to a lesser extent in other cruciferous vegetables, whereas 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP) is a major human bladder carcinogen and is present at significant levels in tobacco smoke. Here, we show that SF inhibits ABP-induced DNA damage in both human bladder cells in vitro and mouse bladder tissue in vivo, using dG-C8-ABP as a biomarker, which is the predominant ABP-DNA adduct formed in human bladder cells and tissues. SF activates NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2), which is a well-recognized chemopreventive target and activates the Nrf2-regulated cytoprotective signaling pathway. Comparison between wild-type mice and mice without Nrf2 shows that Nrf2 activation is required by SF for inhibition of ABP-induced DNA damage. Moreover, Nrf2 activation by SF in the bladder occurs primarily in the epithelium, which is the principal site of bladder cancer development. These data, together with our recent observation that SF-enriched broccoli sprout extracts strongly inhibits N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced bladder cancer development, suggest that SF is a highly promising agent for bladder cancer prevention and provides a mechanistic insight into the repeated epidemiological observation that consumption of broccoli is inversely associated with bladder cancer risk and mortality.

  A Bhattacharya , Y Li , K. L Wade , J. D Paonessa , J. W Fahey and Y. Zhang
 

Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which occurs in many common cruciferous vegetables, was recently shown to be selectively delivered to bladder cancer tissues through urinary excretion and to inhibit bladder cancer development in rats. The present investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that AITC-containing cruciferous vegetables also inhibit bladder cancer development. We focused on an AITC-rich mustard seed powder (MSP-1). AITC was stably stored as its glucosinolate precursor (sinigrin) in MSP-1. Upon addition of water, however, sinigrin was readily hydrolyzed by the accompanying endogenous myrosinase. This myrosinase was also required for full conversion of sinigrin to AITC in vivo, but the matrix of MSP-1 had no effect on AITC bioavailability. Sinigrin itself was not bioactive, whereas hydrated MSP-1 caused apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest in bladder cancer cell lines in vitro. Comparison between hydrated MSP-1 and pure sinigrin with added myrosinase suggested that the anticancer effect of MSP-1 was derived principally, if not entirely, from the AITC generated from sinigrin. In an orthotopic rat bladder cancer model, oral MSP-1 at 71.5 mg/kg (sinigrin dose of 9 µmol/kg) inhibited bladder cancer growth by 34.5% (P < 0.05) and blocked muscle invasion by 100%. Moreover, the anticancer activity was associated with significant modulation of key cancer therapeutic targets, including vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclin B1 and caspase 3. On an equimolar basis, the anticancer activity of AITC delivered as MSP-1 appears to be more robust than that of pure AITC. MSP-1 is thus an attractive delivery vehicle for AITC and it strongly inhibits bladder cancer development and progression.

 
 
 
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