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Articles by J. D Marth
Total Records ( 3 ) for J. D Marth
  H Wang , W Zhang , R Tang , R. P Hebbel , M. A Kowalska , C Zhang , J. D Marth , M Fukuda , C Zhu and Y. Huo

Objective— Core2 1 to 6-N-glucosaminyltransferase-I (C2GlcNAcT-I) plays an important role in optimizing the binding functions of several selectin ligands, including P-selectin glycoprotein ligand. We used apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient atherosclerotic mice to investigate the role of C2GlcNAcT-I in platelet and leukocyte interactions with injured arterial walls, in endothelial regeneration at injured sites, and in the formation of arterial neointima.

Methods and Results— Arterial neointima induced by wire injury was smaller in C2GlcNAcT-I-deficient apoE–/– mice than in control apoE–/– mice (a 79% reduction in size). Compared to controls, apoE–/– mice deficient in C2GlcNAcT-I also demonstrated less leukocyte adhesion on activated platelets in microflow chambers (a 75% reduction), and accumulation of leukocytes at injured areas of mouse carotid arteries was eliminated. Additionally, endothelial regeneration in injured lumenal areas was substantially faster in C2GlcNAcT-I-deficient apoE–/– mice than in control apoE–/– mice. Endothelial regeneration was associated with reduced accumulation of platelet factor 4 (PF4) at injured sites. PF4 deficiency accelerated endothelial regeneration and protected mice from neointima formation after arterial injury.

Conclusions— C2GlcNAcT-I deficiency suppresses injury-induced arterial neointima formation, and this effect is attributable to decreased leukocyte recruitment to injured vascular walls and increased endothelial regeneration. Both C2GlcNAcT-I and PF4 are promising targets for the treatment of arterial restenosis.

  S Takamatsu , A Antonopoulos , K Ohtsubo , D Ditto , Y Chiba , D. T Le , H. R Morris , S. M Haslam , A Dell , J. D Marth and N. Taniguchi

N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase-IV (GnT-IV) has two isoenzymes, GnT-IVa and GnT-IVb, which initiate the GlcNAcβ1-4 branch synthesis on the Man1-3 arm of the N-glycan core thereby increasing N-glycan branch complexity and conferring endogenous lectin binding epitopes. To elucidate the physiological significance of GnT-IV, we engineered and characterized GnT-IVb-deficient mice and further generated GnT-IVa/-IVb double deficient mice. In wild-type mice, GnT-IVa expression is restricted to gastrointestinal tissues, whereas GnT-IVb is broadly expressed among organs. GnT-IVb deficiency induced aberrant GnT-IVa expression corresponding to the GnT-IVb distribution pattern that might be attributed to increased Ets-1, which conceivably activates the Mgat4a promoter, and thereafter preserved apparent GnT-IV activity. The compensative GnT-IVa expression might contribute to amelioration of the GnT-IVb-deficient phenotype. GnT-IVb deficiency showed mild phenotypic alterations in hematopoietic cell populations and hemostasis. GnT-IVa/-IVb double deficiency completely abolished GnT-IV activity that resulted in the disappearance of the GlcNAcβ1-4 branch on the Man1-3 arm that was confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS and GC-MS linkage analyses. Comprehensive glycomic analyses revealed that the abundance of terminal moieties was preserved in GnT-IVa/-IVb double deficiency that was due to the elevated expression of glycosyltransferases regarding synthesis of terminal moieties. Thereby, this may maintain the expression of glycan ligands for endogenous lectins and prevent cellular dysfunctions. The fact that the phenotype of GnT-IVa/-IVb double deficiency largely overlapped that of GnT-IVa single deficiency can be attributed to the induced glycomic compensation. This is the first report that mammalian organs have highly organized glycomic compensation systems to preserve N-glycan branch complexity.

  M. N Ismail , E. L Stone , M Panico , S. H Lee , Y Luu , K Ramirez , S. B Ho , M Fukuda , J. D Marth , S. M Haslam and A. Dell

Core 2 β1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C2GnT), which exists in three isoforms, C2GnT1, C2GnT2 and C2GnT3, is one of the key enzymes in the O-glycan biosynthetic pathway. These isoenzymes produce core 2 O-glycans and have been correlated with the biosynthesis of core 4 O-glycans and I-branches. Previously, we have reported mice with single and multiple deficiencies of C2GnT isoenzyme(s) and have evaluated the biological and structural consequences of the loss of core 2 function. We now present more comprehensive O-glycomic analyses of neutral and sialylated glycans expressed in the colon, small intestine, stomach, kidney, thyroid/trachea and thymus of wild-type, C2GnT2 and C2GnT3 single knockouts and the C2GnT1–3 triple knockout mice. Very high-quality data have emerged from our mass spectrometry techniques with the capability of detecting O-glycans up to at least 3500 Da. We were able to unambiguously elucidate the types of O-glycan core, branching location and residue linkages, which allowed us to exhaustively characterize structural changes in the knockout tissues. The C2GnT2 knockout mice suffered a major loss of core 2 O-glycans as well as glycans with I-branches on core 1 antennae especially in the stomach and the colon. In contrast, core 2 O-glycans still dominated the O-glycomic profile of most tissues in the C2GnT3 knockout mice. Analysis of the C2GnT triple knockout mice revealed a complete loss of both core 2 O-glycans and branched core 1 antennae, confirming that the three known isoenzymes are entirely responsible for producing these structures. Unexpectedly, O-linked mannosyl glycans are upregulated in the triple deficient stomach. In addition, our studies have revealed an interesting terminal structure detected on O-glycans of the colon tissues that is similar to the RM2 antigen from glycolipids.

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