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Articles by J. D Graham
Total Records ( 2 ) for J. D Graham
  J. D Graham , P. A Mote , U Salagame , J. H van Dijk , R. L Balleine , L. I Huschtscha , R. R Reddel and C. L. Clarke

Proliferation in the nonpregnant human breast is highest in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle when serum progesterone levels are high, and exposure to progesterone analogues in hormone replacement therapy is known to elevate breast cancer risk, yet the proliferative effects of progesterone in the human breast are poorly understood. In a model of normal human breast, we have shown that progesterone increased incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and increased cell numbers by activation of pathways involved in DNA replication licensing, including E2F transcription factors, chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1 (Cdt1), and the minichromosome maintenance proteins and by increased expression of proteins involved in kinetochore formation including Ras-related nuclear protein (Ran) and regulation of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1). Progenitor cells competent to give rise to both myoepithelial and luminal epithelial cells were increased by progesterone, showing that progesterone influences epithelial cell lineage differentiation. Therefore, we have demonstrated that progesterone augments proliferation of normal human breast cells by both activating DNA replication licensing and kinetochore formation and increasing bipotent progenitor numbers.

  H. N Hilton , M Kalyuga , M. J Cowley , M. C Alles , H. J Lee , C. E Caldon , K Blazek , W Kaplan , E. A Musgrove , R. J Daly , M. J Naylor , J. D Graham , C. L Clarke and C. J. Ormandy

Prolactin and progesterone act together to regulate mammary alveolar development, and both hormones have been implicated in breast cancer initiation and progression. Here we show that Elf5, a prolactin-induced ETS transcription factor that specifies the mammary secretory cell lineage, is also induced by progestins in breast cancer cells via a direct mechanism. To define the transcriptional response to progestin elicited via Elf5, we made an inducible Elf5 short hairpin-RNA knock-down model in T47D breast cancer cells and used it to prevent the progestin-induction of Elf5. Functional analysis of Affymetrix gene expression data using Gene Ontologies and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed enhancement of the progestin effects on cell cycle gene expression. Cell proliferation assays showed a more efficacious progestin-induced growth arrest when Elf5 was kept at baseline levels. These results showed that progestin induction of Elf5 expression tempered the antiproliferative effects of progestins in T47D cells, providing a further mechanistic link between prolactin and progestin in the regulation of mammary cell phenotype.

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