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Articles by J. C. Wu
Total Records ( 3 ) for J. C. Wu
  K. D Wilson , S Hu , S Venkatasubrahmanyam , J. D Fu , N Sun , O. J Abilez , J. J. A Baugh , F Jia , Z Ghosh , R. A Li , A. J Butte and J. C. Wu
  Background—

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered endogenous class of small, noncoding RNAs that play important posttranscriptional regulatory roles by targeting messenger RNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Human embryonic stem cells are known to express miRNAs that are often undetectable in adult organs, and a growing body of evidence has implicated miRNAs as important arbiters of heart development and disease.

Methods and Results—

To better understand the transition between the human embryonic and cardiac "miRNA-omes," we report here the first miRNA profiling study of cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells. Analyzing 711 unique miRNAs, we have identified several interesting miRNAs, including miR-1, -133, and -208, that have been previously reported to be involved in cardiac development and disease and that show surprising patterns of expression across our samples. We also identified novel miRNAs, such as miR-499, that are strongly associated with cardiac differentiation and that share many predicted targets with miR-208. Overexpression of miR-499 and -1 resulted in upregulation of important cardiac myosin heavy-chain genes in embryoid bodies; miR-499 overexpression also caused upregulation of the cardiac transcription factor MEF2C.

Conclusions—

Taken together, our data give significant insight into the regulatory networks that govern human embryonic stem cell differentiation and highlight the ability of miRNAs to perturb, and even control, the genes that are involved in cardiac specification of human embryonic stem cells.

  R. J Swijnenburg , J. A Govaert , K. E.A van der Bogt , J. I Pearl , M Huang , W Stein , G Hoyt , H Vogel , C. H Contag , R. C Robbins and J. C. Wu
 

Background— Despite ongoing clinical trials, the optimal time for delivery of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) after myocardial infarction is unclear. We compared the viability and effects of transplanted BMCs on cardiac function in the acute and subacute inflammatory phases of myocardial infarction.

Methods and Results— The time course of acute inflammatory cell infiltration was quantified by FACS analysis of enzymatically digested hearts of FVB mice (n=12) after left anterior descending artery ligation. Mac-1+Gr-1high neutrophil infiltration peaked at day 4. BMCs were harvested from transgenic FVB mice expressing firefly luciferase (Fluc) and green fluorescent protein (GFP). Afterward, 2.5x106 BMCs were injected into the left ventricle of wild-type FVB mice either immediately (acute BMC) or 7 days (subacute BMC) after myocardial infarction, or after a sham procedure (n=8 per group). In vivo bioluminescence imaging showed an early signal increase in both BMC groups at day 7, followed by a nonsignificant trend (P=0.203) toward improved BMC survival in the subacute BMC group that persisted until the bioluminescence imaging signal reached background levels after 42 days. Compared with controls (myocardial infarction+saline injection), echocardiography showed a significant preservation of fractional shortening at 4 weeks (acute BMC versus saline; P<0.01) and 6 weeks (both BMC groups versus saline; P<0.05) but no significant differences between the 2 BMC groups. FACS analysis of BMC-injected hearts at day 7 revealed that GFP+ BMCs expressed hematopoietic (CD45, Mac-1, Gr-1), minimal progenitor (Sca-1, c-kit), and no endothelial (CD133, Flk-1) or cardiac (Trop-T) cell markers.

Conclusion— Timing of BMC delivery has minimal effects on intramyocardial retention and preservation of cardiac function. In general, there is poor long-term engraftment and BMCs tend to adopt inflammatory cell phenotypes.

  J. P DiNitto , G. D Deshmukh , Y Zhang , S. L Jacques , R Coli , J. W Worrall , W Diehl , J. M English and J. C. Wu
 

The activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is tightly regulated through a variety of mechanisms. Kinetic studies show that activation of c-Kit RTK occurs through an inter-molecular autophosphorylation. Phosphopeptide mapping of c-Kit reveals that 14–22 phosphates are added to each mol of wild-type (WT) c-Kit during the activation. Phosphorylation sites are found on the JM, kinase insert (KID), c-terminal domains and the activation loop (A-loop), but only the sites on the JM domain contribute to the kinase activation. The A-loop tyrosine (Y823) is not phosphorylated until very late in the activation (>90% completion), indicating that the A-loop phosphorylation is not required for c-Kit activation. A sunitinib-resistant mutant D816H that accelerates auto-activation by 184-fold shows no phosphorylation on the A-loop tyrosine after full activation. A loss-of-phosphorylation mutation Y823F remains fully competent in auto-activation. Similar to WT and D816H, the unactivated Y823F mutant binds sunitinib and imatinib with high affinity (KD = 5.9 nM). But unlike the WT and D816H where the activated enzymes lose the ability to bind the two drugs, activated Y823F binds the two inhibitors effectively. These observations suggest that the A-loop of activated Y823F remains flexible and can readily adopt unactivated conformations to accommodate DFG-out binders.

 
 
 
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