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Articles by J. C Makielski
Total Records ( 2 ) for J. C Makielski
  B Ye , S. L Kroboth , J. L Pu , J. J Sims , N. T Aggarwal , E. M McNally , J. C Makielski and N. Q. Shi

Rationale: Cardioprotective pathways may involve a mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoKATP) channel but its composition is not fully understood.

Objective: We hypothesized that the mitoKATP channel contains a sulfonylurea receptor (SUR)2 regulatory subunit and aimed to identify the molecular structure.

Methods and Results: Western blot analysis in cardiac mitochondria detected a 55-kDa mitochondrial SUR2 (mitoSUR2) short form, 2 additional short forms (28 and 68 kDa), and a 130-kDa long form. RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends) identified a 1.5-Kb transcript, which was generated by a nonconventional intraexonic splicing (IES) event within the 4th and 29th exons of the SUR2 mRNA. The translated product matched the predicted size of the 55-kDa short form. In a knockout mouse (SUR2KO), in which the SUR2 gene was disrupted, the 130-kDa mitoSUR2 was absent, but the short forms remained expressed. Diazoxide failed to induce increased fluorescence of flavoprotein oxidation in SUR2KO cells, indicating that the diazoxide-sensitive mitoKATP channel activity was associated with 130-kDa–based channels. However, SUR2KO mice displayed similar infarct sizes to preconditioned wild type, suggesting a protective role for the remaining short form-based channels. Heterologous coexpression of the SUR2 IES variant and Kir6.2 in a K+ transport mutant Escherichia coli strain permitted improved cell growth under acidic pH conditions. The SUR2 IES variant was localized to mitochondria, and removal of a predicted mitochondrial targeting sequence allowed surface expression and detection of an ATP-sensitive current when coexpressed with Kir6.2.

Conclusions: We identify a novel SUR2 IES variant in cardiac mitochondria and provide evidence that the variant-based channel can form an ATP-sensitive conductance and may contribute to cardioprotection.

  J Cheng , D. W Van Norstrand , A Medeiros Domingo , C Valdivia , B. h Tan , B Ye , S Kroboth , M Vatta , D. J Tester , C. T January , J. C Makielski and M. J. Ackerman

Background— Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a leading cause of death during the first 6 months after birth. About 5% to 10% of SIDS may stem from cardiac channelopathies such as long-QT syndrome. We recently implicated mutations in 1-syntrophin (SNTA1) as a novel cause of long-QT syndrome, whereby mutant SNTA1 released inhibition of associated neuronal nitric oxide synthase by the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase PMCA4b, causing increased peak and late sodium current (INa) via S-nitrosylation of the cardiac sodium channel. This study determined the prevalence and functional properties of SIDS-associated SNTA1 mutations.

Methods and Results— Using polymerase chain reaction, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, and DNA sequencing of SNTA1’s open reading frame, 6 rare (absent in 800 reference alleles) missense mutations (G54R, P56S, T262P, S287R, T372M, and G460S) were identified in 8 (3%) of 292 SIDS cases. These mutations were engineered using polymerase chain reaction–based overlap extension and were coexpressed heterologously with SCN5A, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and PMCA4b in HEK293 cells. INa was recorded using the whole-cell method. A significant 1.4- to 1.5-fold increase in peak INa and 2.3- to 2.7-fold increase in late INa compared with controls was evident for S287R-, T372M-, and G460S-SNTA1 and was reversed by a neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. These 3 mutations also caused a significant depolarizing shift in channel inactivation, thereby increasing the overlap of the activation and inactivation curves to increase window current.

Conclusions— Abnormal biophysical phenotypes implicate mutations in SNTA1 as a novel pathogenic mechanism for the subset of channelopathic SIDS. Functional studies are essential to distinguish pathogenic perturbations in channel interacting proteins such as 1-syntrophin from similarly rare but innocuous ones.

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