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Articles by J. A Deakin
Total Records ( 3 ) for J. A Deakin
  L Jin , M Hricovini , J. A Deakin and D. Uhrin

The solution conformation of a fully sulfated heparin-derived tetrasaccharide, I, was studied in the presence of a 4-fold excess of Ca2+. Proton–proton and proton–carbon residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) were measured in a neutral aligning medium. The order parameters of two rigid hexosamine rings of I were determined separately using singular value decomposition and ab initio structures of disaccharide fragments of I. The order parameters were very similar implying that a common order tensor can be used to analyze the structure of I. Using one order tensor, RDCs of both hexosamine rings were used as restraints in molecular dynamics simulations. RDCs of the inner iduronic acid were calculated for every point of the molecular dynamics trajectory. The fitting of the calculated RDCs of the two forms of the iduronic acid to the experimental values yielded a population of 1C4 and 2So conformers of iduronic acid that agreed well with the analysis based on proton–proton scalar coupling constants. The glycosidic linkage torsion angles in RDC-restrained molecular dynamics (MD) structures of I are consistent with the interglycosidic three-bond proton–carbon coupling constants. These structures also show that the shape of heparin is not affected dramatically by the conformational flexibility of the iduronic acid ring. This is in line with conclusions of previous studies based on MD simulations and the analysis of 1H-1H NOEs. Our work therefore demonstrates the effectiveness of RDCs in the conformational analysis of glycosaminoglycans.

  S Sarrazin , M Lyon , J. A Deakin , M Guerrini , P Lassalle , M Delehedde and H. Lortat Jacob

Endocan is a recently identified soluble chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) proteoglycan. Synthesized by endothelial cells, it has been found to be over-expressed in the vasculature surrounding a number of tumors, and by promoting growth factor mitogenic activities, hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) in particular, it supports cellular proliferation. In this work, we characterized the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain of Endocan, purified either from the naturally producing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or from a recombinant over-expression system in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK). Compositional analysis using different chondroitinases as well as nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed that the GAG chains from both sources share many characteristics, with the exception of size (15 and 40 kDa, respectively, for HUVEC and HEK-293 cells). The DS-specific, IdoA-containing disaccharides contribute 30% of the chain (15% of which are 2-O-sulfated) and are mostly clustered in tetra- (35%), hexa- (12%), and octa- (5%) saccharide domains. Highly sulfated D, E, and B disaccharide units (HexA2S-GalNAc6S, HexA-GalNAc4S6S, and HexA2S-GalNAc4S) were also detected in significant amounts in both chains and may account for the HGF/SF-binding activity of the CS/DS. This work establishes that HEK-293 cells can be engineered to provide a valuable source of Endocan with authentic CS/DS chains, enabling the purification of sufficient amounts for structural and/or binding analysis and providing a possible model of Endocan CS/DS chain organization.

  P Tatrai , K Egedi , A Somoracz , T. H van Kuppevelt , G ten Dam , M Lyon , J. A Deakin , A Kiss , Z Schaff and I. Kovalszky

Heparan sulfate (HS), due to its ability to interact with a multitude of HS-binding factors, is involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Remarkably diverse fine structure of HS, shaped by non-exhaustive enzymatic modifications, influences the interaction of HS with its partners. Here we characterized the HS profile of normal human and rat liver, as well as alterations of HS related to liver fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis, by using sulfation-specific antibodies. The HS immunopattern was compared with the immunolocalization of selected HS proteoglycans. HS samples from normal liver and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were subjected to disaccharide analysis. Expression changes of nine HS-modifying enzymes in human fibrogenic diseases and HCC were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Increased abundance and altered immunolocalization of HS was paralleled by elevated mRNA levels of HS-modifying enzymes in the diseased liver. The strong immunoreactivity of the normal liver for 3-O-sulfated epitope further increased with disease, along with upregulation of 3-OST-1. Modest 6-O-undersulfation of HCC HS is probably explained by Sulf overexpression. Our results may prompt further investigation of the role of highly 3-O-sulfated and partially 6-O-desulfated HS in pathological processes such as hepatitis virus entry and aberrant growth factor signaling in fibrogenic liver diseases and HCC. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:429–441, 2010)

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