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Articles by J Yuan
Total Records ( 10 ) for J Yuan
  N Ji , J Yuan , J Liu and S. Tian

Expression of breast cancer resistance protein/ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (BCRP/ABCG2) is the major cause of chemotherapy failure. It is important to establish and characterize the multidrug resistance cells and to investigate the mechanism of multidrug resistance. Multidrug-resistant cells expressing BCRP/ABCG2 based on human breast cancer MCF-7/wt cells were developed by gradually increasing application of low concentration of mitoxantrone. Real-time quantitative PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence assay were employed to analyze BCRP mRNA and protein expression. Drug accumulation in the cells was measured by flow cytometry and DNA methyltransferases were analyzed by western blot. The results indicated that the inhibitory ratio of cell proliferative growth exhibited an exponential relation with the concentration of mitoxantrone. The IC50 of MCF-7/wt cells to mitoxantrone was found to be 0.42 µM. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthlthiazol-2-YI)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay indicated that the mitoxantrone-resistant cells at different stages exhibited cross-resistance to adriamycin and taxol. BCRP/ABCG2 mRNA and protein levels in the mitoxantrone-resistant cells at different stages increased with increasing concentration of mitoxantrone. Intracellular accumulation of mitoxantrone in the cells decreased with the increase of the BCRP/ABCG2 expression levels. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a) expressions in the cells at different stages decreased slightly, whereas DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) expression decreases significantly. BCRP/ABCG2 overexpression and its drug-efflux function in the drug-resistant cells are the main factors to produce multidrug resistance. Our results suggest that multidrug resistance is related to overexpression of BCRP/ABCG2 and the decrease of DNA methyltransferases, especially DNMT3b.

  H. J Kim , H Moradi , J Yuan , K Norris and N. D. Vaziri

A significant reduction of renal mass results in proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial injury, culminating in end-stage chronic renal failure (CRF). The accumulation of lipids in the kidney can cause renal disease. Uptake of oxidized lipoproteins via scavenger receptors, reabsorption of filtered protein-bound lipids via the megalin-cubilin complex, and increased glucose load per nephron can promote lipid accumulation in glomerular, tubular, and interstitial cells in CRF. Cellular lipid homeostasis is regulated by lipid influx, synthesis, catabolism, and efflux. We examined lipid-regulatory factors in the remnant kidney of rats 11 wk after nephrectomy (CRF) or sham operation. CRF resulted in azotemia, proteinuria, lipid accumulation in the kidney, upregulation of megalin, cubilin, mediators of lipid influx (scavenger receptor class A and lectin-like oxidized receptor-1), lipid efflux (liver X receptor /β and ATP-binding cassette transporter), and fatty acid biosynthesis (carbohydrate-response element binding protein, fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase). However, factors involved in cholesterol biosynthesis (sterol regulatory element binding protein, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, SCAP, Insig-1, and Insig-2) and fatty acid oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, acyl-CoA oxidase, and liver-type fatty acid binding protein) were reduced in the remnant kidney. Thus CRF results in heavy lipid accumulation in the remnant kidney, which is mediated by upregulation of pathways involved in tubular reabsorption of filtered protein-bound lipids, influx of oxidized lipoproteins and synthesis of fatty acids, and downregulation of pathways involved in fatty acid catabolism.

  I Cali , R Castellani , A Alshekhlee , Y Cohen , J Blevins , J Yuan , J. P. M Langeveld , P Parchi , J. G Safar , W. Q Zou and P. Gambetti

Five phenotypically distinct subtypes have been identified in sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (sCJD), based on the methionine/valine polymorphic genotype of codon 129 of the prion protein (PrP) gene and the presence of either one of the two protease K-resistant scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) types identified as 1 and 2. The infrequent co-existence of both PrPSc types in the same case has been known for a long time. Recently, it has been reported, using type-specific antibodies, that the PrPSc type 1 is present in all cases of sCJD carrying PrPSc type 2. The consistent co-occurrence of both PrPSc types complicates the diagnosis and the current classification of sCJD, and has implications for the pathogenesis of naturally occurring prion diseases. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of PrPSc types 1 and 2 co-occurrence, along with its effects on the disease phenotype and PrPSc strain characteristics, comparatively analysing 34 cases of sCJD, all methionine homozygous at codon 129 of the PrP gene (sCJDMM). To minimize overestimating the prevalence of the sCJDMM cases carrying PrPSc types 1 and 2 (sCJDMM1-2), we used proteinase K concentrations designed to hydrolyse all fragments resulting from an incomplete digestion, while preserving the protease-resistant PrPSc core. Furthermore, we used several antibodies to maximize the detection of both PrPSc types. Our data show that sCJDMM cases associated exclusively with either PrPSc type 1 (sCJDMM1) or PrPSc type 2 (sCJDMM2) do exist; we estimate that they account for approximately 56% and 5% of all the sCJDMM cases, respectively; while in 39% of the cases, both PrPSc types 1 and 2 are present together (sCJDMM1-2) either mixed in the same anatomical region or separate in different regions. Clinically, sCJDMM1-2 had an average disease duration intermediate between the other two sCJDMM subtypes. The histopathology was also intermediate, except for the cerebellum where it resembled that of sCJDMM1. These features, along with the PrP immunostaining pattern, offer a diagnostic clue. We also observed a correlation between the disease duration and the prevalence of PrPSc type 2 and sCJDMM2 phenotypes. The use of different antibodies and of the conformational stability immunoassay indicated that the co-existence of types 1 and 2 in the same anatomical region may confer special conformational characteristics to PrPSc types 1 and 2. All of these findings indicate that sCJDMM1-2 should be considered as a separate entity at this time.

  J Luan , J Yuan , X Li , S Jin , L Yu , M Liao , H Zhang , C Xu , Q He , B Wen , X Zhong , X Chen , H. L.Y Chan , J. J.Y Sung , B Zhou and C. Ding

Background: Variations in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome may develop spontaneously or under selective pressure from antiviral therapy. Such variations may confer drug resistance or affect virus replication capacity, resulting in failure of antiviral therapy.

Methods: A duplex PCR was used to amplify the region of the reverse transcriptase gene, the precore promoter, and the basal core promoter of the HBV genome. Four multiplex primer-extension reactions were used to interrogate 60 frequently observed HBV variants during antiviral therapy. Automated MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) was used for mutation detection. Capillary sequencing was used to confirm the MS results.

Results: The limit of quantification was 1000 HBV copies/mL for multiplex detection of HBV variants. Fifty-three variants (88.3%) were analyzed successfully in at least 90% of the sera from 88 treatment-naive patients and 80 patients with virologic breakthrough. MS was able to detect twice as many minor variants as direct sequencing while achieving close to full automation. MS and direct sequencing showed only 0.1% discordance in variant calls.

Conclusions: This platform based on multiplex primer extension and MALDI-TOF MS was able to detect 60 HBV variants in 4 multiplex reactions with accuracy and low detection limits.

  M. V Pahl , N. D Vaziri , J Yuan and S. G. Adler

Background and objectives: Hematopoietic growth factor–inducible neurokinin 1 (HGFIN), also known as Gpnmb and osteoactivin, is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed in numerous cells, including osteoclasts, macrophages, and dendritic cells. It serves as an osteoblast differentiation factor, participates in bone mineralization, and functions as a negative regulator of inflammation in macrophages. Although measurable at low levels in monocytes, monocyte-to-macrophage transformation causes substantial increase in HGFIN expression. HGFIN is involved in systemic inflammation, bone demineralization, and soft tissue vascular calcification.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We explored HGFIN expression in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in 21 stable hemodialysis patients and 22 control subjects.

Results: Dialysis patients exhibited marked upregulation of colony-stimulating factor and IL-6 and significant downregulation of IL-10 in intact monocytes and transformed macrophages. HGFIN expression in intact monocytes was negligible in control subjects but conspicuously elevated (8.6-fold) in dialysis patients. As expected, in vitro monocyte-to-macrophage transformation resulted in marked upregulation of HGFIN in cells obtained from both groups but much more so in dialysis patients (17.5-fold higher). Upregulation of HGFIN and inflammatory cytokines in the uremic monocyte-derived macrophages occurred when grown in the presence of either normal or uremic serum, suggesting the enduring effect of the in vivo uremic milieu on monocyte/macrophage phenotype and function.

Conclusions: Uremic macrophages exhibit increased HGFIN gene and protein expression and heightened expression of proinflammatory and a suppressed expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Further studies are needed to determine the role of heightened monocyte/macrophage HGFIN expression in the pathogenesis of ESRD-induced inflammation and vascular and soft tissue calcification.

  J Yuan , G Ghosal and J. Chen

Mutations in HepA-related protein (HARP) are the only identified causes of Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SIOD). HARP has a unique annealing helicase activity in vitro, but the in vivo functional significance remains unknown. Here, we demonstrated that HARP is recruited to stalled replication forks via its direct interaction with Replication protein A (RPA). Cells with HARP depletion displayed increased spontaneous DNA damage and G2/M arrest, suggesting that HARP normally acts to stabilize stalled replication forks. Our data place the annealing helicase activity of HARP at replication forks and propose that SIOD syndrome may be caused by the destabilization of replication forks during cell proliferation.

  J Yuan and G. Kroemer

A canonical regulatory pathway involving the members of the Bcl-2 and caspase families has been established to regulate developmental apoptosis in nematodes and flies. However, mutant mice that have major deficiencies in this apoptosis pathway show only relatively minor developmental defects. Recent revelations indicate that multiple mechanisms are involved in regulating cell death during mammalian development, tissue homeostasis, and pathological cell loss. Here, we critically evaluate the evidence demonstrating the existence of alternative cell death mechanisms, including apoptosis of lower organisms in the absence of canonical apoptosis mediators, autophagic cell death, necroptosis, elimination by shedding, keratinocyte death by cornification, and cell–cell cannibalism by entosis. The physiological relevance of alternative cell death mechanisms as primary and backup mechanisms is discussed.

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