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Articles by J Yeboah
Total Records ( 4 ) for J Yeboah
  J Yeboah , A. R Folsom , G. L Burke , C Johnson , J. F Polak , W Post , J. A Lima , J. R Crouse and D. M. Herrington

Background— Although brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) predicts recurrent cardiovascular events, its predictive value for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in adults free of CVD is not well established. We assessed the predictive value of FMD for incident CVD events in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

Methods and Results— Brachial artery FMD was measured in a nested case-cohort sample of 3026 of 6814 subjects (mean±SD age, 61.2±9.9 years) in MESA, a population-based cohort study of adults free of clinical CVD at baseline recruited at 6 clinic sites in the United States. The sample included 50.2% female, 34.3% white, 19.7% Chinese, 20.8% black, and 25.1% Hispanic subjects. Probability-weighted Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to examine the association between FMD and 5 years of adjudicated incident CVD events, including incident myocardial infarction, definite angina, coronary revascularization (coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, or other revascularization), stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest, and CVD death. Mean (SD) FMD of the cohort was 4.4% (2.8). In probability-weighted Cox models, FMD/unit SD was significantly associated with incident cardiovascular events in the univariate model (adjusted for age and sex) (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.65 to 0.97; P=0.01), after adjustment for the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.62 to 0.97; P=0.025), and in the multivariable model (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 0.99; P=0.04) after adjustment for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking status, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, heart rate, statin use, and blood pressure medication use. The c statistic (area under the curve) values of FMD, FRS, and FRS+FMD were 0.65, 0.74, and 0.74, respectively. Compared with the FRS alone, the addition of FMD to the FRS net correctly reclassifies 52% of subjects with no incident CVD event but net incorrectly reclassifies 23% of subjects with an incident CVD event, an overall net correct reclassification of 29% (P<0.001).

Conclusions— Brachial FMD is a predictor of incident cardiovascular events in population-based adults. Even though the addition of FMD to the FRS did not improve discrimination of subjects at risk of CVD events in receiver operating characteristic analysis, it improved the classification of subjects as low, intermediate, and high CVD risk compared with the FRS.

  A. C Doran , A. B Lehtinen , N Meller , M. J Lipinski , R. P Slayton , S. N Oldham , M. D Skaflen , J Yeboah , S. S Rich , D. W Bowden and C. A. McNamara

Rationale: The gene encoding the helix–loop–helix transcription factor Id3 (inhibitor of differentiation-3) is located within atherosclerosis susceptibility loci of both mice and humans, yet its influence on atherosclerosis is not known.

Objective: The present study sought to determine whether polymorphisms in the ID3 gene were associated with indices of atherosclerosis in humans and if loss of Id3 function modulated atherogenesis in mice.

Methods and Results: Six tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (tagSNPs) in the human ID3 gene were assessed in participants of the Diabetes Heart Study. One tagSNP, rs11574, was independently associated with carotid intima–media thickness (IMT). The human ID3 variant at rs11574 results in an alanine to threonine substitution in the C terminus. To determine the effect of this polymorphism on the basic function of Id3, site-directed mutagenesis of the human ID3 gene at rs11574 was performed. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in coimmunoprecipitation of the known E-protein partner, E12, with Id3 when it contains the sequence encoded by the risk allele (Id3105T). Further, Id3105T had an attenuated ability to modulate E12-mediated transcriptional activation compared to Id3 containing the ancestral allele (Id3105A). Microarray analysis of vascular smooth muscle cells from WT and Id3–/– mice revealed significant modulation of multiple gene pathways implicated in atherogenesis. Moreover, Id3–/–ApoE–/– mice developed significantly more atherosclerosis in response to 32 weeks of Chow or Western diet feeding than Id3+/+ApoE–/– mice.

Conclusions: Taken together, results provide novel evidence that Id3 is an atheroprotective factor and link a common SNP in the human ID3 gene to loss of Id3 function and increased IMT.

  P. K Gyekye , C Schandorf , M Boadu , J Yeboah and J. K. Amoako

Organ and effective doses to 90 patients undergoing some selected fluoroscopic examinations at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital were estimated using the Monte Carlo-based program (PCXMC version 1.5). Radiation dose was estimated from free-in-air measurements. The mean effective doses were found to be 0.29 ± 0.07, 0.84 ± 0.13, 3.15 ± 0.44, 6.24 ± 0.70 and 0.38 ± 0.05 mSv for urethrogram, barium swallow, barium meal, barium enema and myelogram examinations, respectively. The dose area product was estimated to be 3.55 ± 0.95, 16.44 ± 2.60, 50.81 ± 7.04, 99.69 ± 10.85 and 9.32 ± 0.99 Gy cm2 for urethrogram, barium swallow, barium meal, barium enema and myelogram examinations, respectively. Optimisation of procedures is required for barium enema and barium meal examinations.

  E. O Darko , A Faanu , A. R Awudu , G Emi Reynolds , J Yeboah , O. C Oppon and E. H. K. Akaho

The results of studies carried out on public exposure contribution from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMS) in two open-pit mines in the Western and Ashanti regions of Ghana are reported. The studies were carried out under International Atomic Energy Agency-supported Technical Co-operation Project GHA/9/005. Measurements were made on samples of water, soil, ore, mine tailings and air using gamma spectrometry. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were used for radon concentration measurements. Survey was also carried out to determine the ambient gamma dose rate in the vicinity of the mines and surrounding areas. The effective doses due to external gamma irradiation, ingestion of water and inhalation of radon and ore dusts were calculated for the two mines. The average annual effective dose was found to be 0.30 ± 0.06 mSv. The result was found to be within the levels published by other countries. The study provides a useful information and data for establishing a comprehensive framework to investigate other mines and develop guidelines for monitoring and control of NORMS in the mining industry and the environment as a whole in Ghana.

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