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Articles by J Xie
Total Records ( 10 ) for J Xie
  L Li , J Xie , M Zhang and S. Wang

Homocysteine (Hcy) can induce proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which is a key event in the genesis of the lesions of atherosclerosis. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and H19 are two important regulating molecules of cell proliferation. The role of Hcy in the proliferation of smooth muscle cell by regulating IGF2 and H19 has not been shown or analyzed so far. This study aims to investigate the potential impact of Hcy on gene imprinting of IGF2 and H19. Cultured human umbilical VSMCs were treated with different concentrations of Hcy. The DNA methylation status of VSMCs was assayed by nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The mRNA levels of H19, IGF2, and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) were detected by reverse transcription PCR, and the protein expression of IGF2 by Western blotting. The results showed that the Hcy treatment resulted in hypomethylation of the sixth CTCF-binding site upstream of H19 of VSMCs. The expression of H19 was increased, whereas the IGF2 mRNA and protein were decreased, the CTCF expression increased with the increase in Hcy concentration. These data indicated that Hcy could induce hypomethylation of the sixth CTCF-binding sites upstream of H19, which is an important regulating area for the imprinting expression of IGF2 and H19. The increased CTCF expression may be a potential mechanism for the demethylation modification of DNA, which resulted from the Hcy treatment.

  J Xie , M. H Li , H. Q Tan , Y. Q Zhu , Y. D Li , C. H Fan , D. J Hu and R. H. Qiao

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The carotid siphon is a natural barrier to intracranial interventions. Our aim was to make a model of the human intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) and to test the navigability of covered stents for intracranial applications.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A digital tube was made on the basis of raw MR images of the human ICA. It was transferred into 10 physical models and then coated with silicone by using a 3D rapid prototyping (RP) machine. Ten dogs then underwent surgery. Their common carotid arteries (CCAs) were exposed, cut, and passed through 1 of the tubes. Finally, the vascular models were made by reanastomosis of their CCAs. Eight expended polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) covered stents (two 3.5 x 16 mm, two 3.5 x 13 mm, two 3.5 x 10 mm, and two 3.5 x 7 mm) were implanted 1 week later. Two dogs remained as controls. The performance of the device was evaluated by angiography and histopathologic examination.

RESULTS: Ten animal models were successfully constructed. There was no vascular spasm or thrombosis when assessed by angiography. Destruction of the tunica intima and media was found in the 3.5 x 16 mm stent group. Destruction of the endothelium was found in the 3.5 x 13 mm stent group, and only flattening of the endothelium was found in the 3.5 x 10 mm and 3.5 x 7 mm stent groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The experimental model was thought to simulate adequately the geometry of the human ICA and, thus, would be an effective tool for the research and testing of neurovascular devices. The length of the stent is 1 factor influencing the navigability in tortuous vessels.

  S Thobois , C Ardouin , E Lhommee , H Klinger , C Lagrange , J Xie , V Fraix , M. C Coelho Braga , R Hassani , A Kistner , A Juphard , E Seigneuret , S Chabardes , P Mertens , G Polo , A Reilhac , N Costes , D LeBars , M Savasta , L Tremblay , J. L Quesada , J. L Bosson , A. L Benabid , E Broussolle , P Pollak and P. Krack

Apathy has been reported to occur after subthalamic nucleus stimulation, a treatment of motor complications in advanced Parkinson’s disease. We carried out a prospective study of the occurrence of apathy and associated symptoms, predictors and mechanisms in the year following subthalamic stimulation. Dopamine agonist drugs were discontinued immediately after surgery and levodopa was markedly reduced within 2 weeks. Apathy and depression were assessed monthly, using the Starkstein apathy scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. Dopamine agonists were re-introduced if patients developed apathy or depression. Preoperative non-motor fluctuations were evaluated using the Ardouin Scale. Depression, apathy and anxiety were evaluated both on and off levodopa. Analysis of predictors of apathy was performed using a Cox proportional hazard model. Twelve patients who developed apathy and a control group of 13 patients who did not underwent [11C]-raclopride positron emission tomography scanning before and after oral intake of methylphenidate. In 63 patients with Parkinson’s disease treated with subthalamic stimulation, dopaminergic treatment was decreased by 82% after surgery. Apathy occurred after a mean of 4.7 (3.3–8.2) months in 34 patients and was reversible in half of these by the 12-month follow-up. Seventeen patients developed transient depression after 5.7 (4.7–9.3) months and these fell into the apathy group with one single exception. At baseline, fluctuations in depression, apathy and anxiety scores were greater in the group with apathy. Fluctuations in apathy, depression and anxiety ratings during a baseline levodopa challenge were also significant predictors of postoperative apathy in univariate analysis, but not motor and cognitive states or the level of reduction of dopaminergic medication. The multivariate model identified non-motor fluctuations in everyday life and anxiety score during the baseline levodopa challenge as two independent significant predictors of postoperative apathy. Without methylphenidate, [11C]-raclopride binding potential values were greater in apathetic patients bilaterally in the orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, posterior cingulate and temporal cortices, left striatum and right amygdala, reflecting greater dopamine D2/D3 receptor density and/or reduced synaptic dopamine level in these areas. The variations of [11C]-raclopride binding potential values induced by methylphenidate were greater in non-apathetic patients in the left orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus and internal globus pallidus and bilaterally in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, consistent with a more important capacity to release dopamine. Non-motor fluctuations are related to mesolimbic dopaminergic denervation. Apathy, depression and anxiety can occur after surgery as a delayed dopamine withdrawal syndrome. A varying extent of mesolimbic dopaminergic denervation and differences in dopaminergic treatment largely determine mood, anxiety and motivation in patients with Parkinson’s disease, contributing to different non-motor phenotypes.

  J Xie , S Guillemette , M Peng , C Gilbert , A Buermeyer and S. B. Cantor

Defects in MLH1, as with other mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, are the primary cause of hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). Mutations in MMR genes often disrupt mismatch repair and MMR signaling functions. However, some HNPCC-associated mutations have unknown pathogenicity. Here, we uncover an MLH1 clinical mutation with a leucine (L)-to-histidine (H) amino acid change at position 607 that ablates MLH1 binding to FANCJ. Given that a DNA helicase is not essential for mammalian MMR in vitro, we considered that loss of MLH1 binding to FANCJ could alter MMR signaling. Consistent with this hypothesis, FANCJ-deficient cells exhibit delayed MMR signaling and apoptotic responses that generate resistance to agents that induce O6-methylguanine lesions. Our data indicate that the delay in MMR signaling provides time for the methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) enzyme to reverse DNA methylation. In essence, FANCJ deficiency alters the competition between two pathways: MGMT-prosurvival versus MMR-prodeath. This outcome could explain the HNPCC familial cancers that present as microsatellite stable and with intact MMR, such as MLHL607H. Importantly, the link between FANCJ and HNPCC provides insight toward directed therapies because loss of the FANCJ/MLH1 interaction also uniquely sensitizes cells to DNA cross-linking agents. Cancer Prev Res; 3(11); 1409–16. ©2010 AACR.

  Y He , H Zhang , J Yin , J Xie , X Tan , S Liu , Q Zhang , C Li , J Zhao , H Wang and G. Cao

Genetic predisposition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B)-signaling pathways linking inflammation to hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unresolved. We conducted a case–control study to determine the associations of the polymorphisms within the promoter regions of NFKB1 encoding NF-B1 and NFKBIA encoding IkappaBalpha with the development of HCC. A total of 404 healthy controls, 482 non-HCC subjects with HBV infection and 202 patients with HCC were included. NFKB1 –94ATTG2 allele and GG allele in the 3'-untranslated region of NFKBIA were more prevalent in HCC patients than in the healthy controls. NFKBIA –826CT and NFKBIA –881AG allelic carriages were more prevalent in HCC patients than in the non-HCC subjects with HBV infection. The estimated haplotype frequency of NFKBIA promoter –881G–826T–519C was significantly higher in the patients with HCC than in the HBV-infected subjects without HCC (odds ratio = 3.142, P = 0.002). As compared with the HBV-infected subjects without HCC, NFKBIA –826 T and NFKBIA –881AG allelic carriages were only associated with HCC risk in the subjects with HBV genotype C. The association of NFKBIA –881AG allelic carriage with HCC risk was not affected by liver cirrhosis (LC) status, alanine aminotransferase level and hepatitis B e antigen status. By multivariate regression analysis, NFKB1 –94ATTG2, NFKBIA –826T, NFKBIA –881AG and HBV genotype C were independently associated with an increased risk of HCC. In conclusion, NFKB1 –94ATTG2 allele and haplotype –881G–826T–519C in NFKBIA promoter were associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. NFKBIA –826T and –881AG were associated with the risk of HCC in the subjects infected with HBV genotype C.

  J Du , J Xie , Z Zhang , H Tsujikawa , D Fusco , D Silverman , B Liang and L. Yue

Rationale: Cardiac fibrosis contributes to pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF), which is the most commonly sustained arrhythmia and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Although it has been suggested that Ca2+ signals are involved in fibrosis promotion, the molecular basis of Ca2+ signaling mechanisms and how Ca2+ signals contribute to fibrogenesis remain unknown.

Objective: To determine the molecular mechanisms of Ca2+-permeable channel(s) in human atrial fibroblasts, and to investigate how Ca2+ signals contribute to fibrogenesis in human AF.

Methods and Results: We demonstrate that the transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin related 7 (TRPM7) is the molecular basis of the major Ca2+-permeable channel in human atrial fibroblasts. Endogenous TRPM7 currents in atrial fibroblasts resemble the biophysical and pharmacological properties of heterologous expressed TRPM7. Knocking down TRPM7 by small hairpin RNA largely eliminates TRPM7 current and Ca2+ influx in atrial fibroblasts. More importantly, atrial fibroblasts from AF patients show a striking upregulation of both TRPM7 currents and Ca2+ influx and are more prone to myofibroblast differentiation, presumably attributable to the enhanced expression of TRPM7. TRPM7 small hairpin RNA markedly reduced basal AF fibroblast differentiation. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, the major stimulator of atrial fibrosis, requires TRPM7-mediated Ca2+ signal for its effect on fibroblast proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, TGF-β1–induced differentiation of cultured human atrial fibroblasts is well correlated with an increase of TRPM7 expression induced by TGF-β1.

Conclusions: Our results establish that TRPM7 is the major Ca2+-permeable channel in human atrial fibroblasts and likely plays an essential role in TGF-β1–elicited fibrogenesis in human AF.

  S Liu , H Zhang , C Gu , J Yin , Y He , J Xie and G. Cao

The association between hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations and hepatocarcinogenesis remains controversial because of conflicting data in the literature. We conducted a meta-analysis of case–control and cohort studies to examine HBV PreS, enhancer II (EnhII), basal core promoter (BCP), and precore mutations in relation to the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).


We searched databases for studies of these associations that were published in English or Chinese up to August 31, 2008. HBV mutation–specific odds ratios and relative risks were pooled by use of a random-effects model and stratified by potential confounders. All statistical tests were two-sided.


Of the 43 studies included in this meta-analysis, 40 used a case–control design. The 43 studies evaluated a total of 11 582 HBV-infected participants, of whom 2801 had HCC. Statistically significant summary odds ratios of HCC were obtained for any PreS mutation (3.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.57 to 5.52), C1653T in EnhII (2.76, 95% CI = 2.09 to 3.64), T1753V (2.35, 95% CI = 1.63 to 3.40), and A1762T/G1764A in BCP (3.79, 95% CI = 2.71 to 5.29). PreS mutations were more strongly associated with an increased risk of HCC in subjects who were infected with HBV genotype C than in those who were infected with HBV genotype B, whereas the opposite was true for A1762T/G1764A. C1653T, T1753V, and A1762T/G1764A were more strongly associated with an increased risk of HCC in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)–positive subjects than in HBeAg-negative subjects. PreS mutations, C1653T, T1753V, and A1762T/G1764A accumulated during the progression of chronic HBV infection from the asymptomatic carrier state to HCC (Ptrend < .001 for each mutation). PreS mutations, C1653T, C1653T + T1753V, and A1762T/G1764A-based combinations of mutations had specificities greater than 80% for the prediction of HCC. The precore mutations G1896A and C1858T were not associated with the risk of HCC, regardless of HBeAg status and HBV genotype.


HBV PreS mutations, C1653T, T1753V, and A1762T/G1764A are associated with an increased risk of HCC. These mutations alone and in combination may be predictive for hepatocarcinogenesis.

  S. P Bliss , A Miller , A. M Navratil , J Xie , S. P McDonough , P. J Fisher , G. E Landreth and M. S. Roberson

Males and females require different patterns of pituitary gonadotropin secretion for fertility. The mechanisms underlying these gender-specific profiles of pituitary hormone production are unknown; however, they are fundamental to understanding the sexually dimorphic control of reproductive function at the molecular level. Several studies suggest that ERK1 and -2 are essential modulators of hypothalamic GnRH-mediated regulation of pituitary gonadotropin production and fertility. To test this hypothesis, we generated mice with a pituitary-specific depletion of ERK1 and 2 and examined a range of physiological parameters including fertility. We find that ERK signaling is required in females for ovulation and fertility, whereas male reproductive function is unaffected by this signaling deficiency. The effects of ERK pathway ablation on LH biosynthesis underlie this gender-specific phenotype, and the molecular mechanism involves a requirement for ERK-dependent up-regulation of the transcription factor Egr1, which is necessary for LHβ expression. Together, these findings represent a significant advance in elucidating the molecular basis of gender-specific regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and sexually dimorphic control of fertility.

  W Yuan , J Xie , C Long , H Erdjument Bromage , X Ding , Y Zheng , P Tempst , S Chen , B Zhu and D. Reinberg

The presence of histone H3 lysine 36 methylation (H3K36me) correlates with actively transcribed genes. In yeast, histone H3K36me mediated by KMT3 (also known as Set2) recruits a histone deacetylase complex, Rpd3s, to ensure the fidelity of transcription initiation. We report the purification of human KMT3a (also known as HYPB or hSet2) complex and the identification of a novel, higher eukaryotic specific subunit, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (HnRNP-L). Interestingly, although KMT3a has intrinsic activity in vitro, HnRNP-L is essential in vivo. Moreover, KMT3a generates mono-, di-, and trimethylated products in vitro, but RNA interference against KMT3a or HnRNP-L down-regulates exclusively the H3K36me3 mark in vivo.

  J Du , J Xie and L. Yue

TRPM2 is a Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channel that plays important roles in oxidative stress–mediated cell death and inflammation processes. However, how TRPM2 is regulated under physiological and pathological conditions is not fully understood. Here, we report that both intracellular and extracellular protons block TRPM2 by inhibiting channel gating. We demonstrate that external protons block TRPM2 with an IC50 of pHo = 5.3, whereas internal protons inhibit TRPM2 with an IC50 of pHi = 6.7. Extracellular protons inhibit TRPM2 by decreasing single-channel conductance. We identify three titratable residues, H958, D964, and E994, at the outer vestibule of the channel pore that are responsible for pHo sensitivity. Mutations of these residues reduce single-channel conductance, decrease external Ca2+ ([Ca2+]o) affinity, and inhibit [Ca2+]o-mediated TRPM2 gating. These results support the following model: titration of H958, D964, and E994 by external protons inhibits TRPM2 gating by causing conformation change of the channel, and/or by decreasing local Ca2+ concentration at the outer vestibule, therefore reducing [Ca2+]o permeation and inhibiting [Ca2+]o-mediated TRPM2 gating. We find that intracellular protons inhibit TRPM2 by inducing channel closure without changing channel conductance. We identify that D933 located at the C terminus of the S4-S5 linker is responsible for intracellular pH sensitivity. Replacement of Asp933 by Asn933 changes the IC50 from pHi = 6.7 to pHi = 5.5. Moreover, substitution of Asp933 with various residues produces marked changes in proton sensitivity, intracellular ADP ribose/Ca2+ sensitivity, and gating profiles of TRPM2. These results indicate that D933 is not only essential for intracellular pH sensitivity, but it is also crucial for TRPM2 channel gating. Collectively, our findings provide a novel mechanism for TRPM2 modulation as well as molecular determinants for pH regulation of TRPM2. Inhibition of TRPM2 by acidic pH may represent an endogenous mechanism governing TRPM2 gating and its physiological/pathological functions.

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