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Articles by J Vaughan
Total Records ( 2 ) for J Vaughan
  P Chen , J Vaughan , C Donaldson , W Vale and C. Li

Urocortin 3 (Ucn 3) is a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-related peptide with high affinity for the type 2 CRF receptor (CRFR2). Central administration of Ucn 3 stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, suppresses feeding, and elevates blood glucose levels, suggesting that activation of brain CRFR2 promotes stress-like responses. Several CRFR2-expressing brain areas, including the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and the posterior amygdala (PA), may be potential sites mediating the effects of Ucn 3. In the present study, Ucn 3 or vehicle was bilaterally injected into the VMH or PA, and food intake and plasma levels of ACTH, corticosterone, glucose, and insulin were determined. Food intake was greatly reduced in rats following Ucn 3 injection into the VMH. Ucn 3 injection into the VMH rapidly elevated plasma levels of glucose and insulin but did not affect ACTH and corticosterone secretion. Injection of Ucn 3 into the PA did not alter any of the parameters measured. We determined that the majority of CRFR2-positive neurons in the VMH were excitatory glutamatergic, and a subset of these neurons project to the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). Importantly, stimulation of CRFR2 in the VMH increased proopiomelanocortin mRNA expression in the ARH. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that CRFR2 in the VMH mediates some of the central effects of Ucn 3, and the ARH melanocortin system may be a downstream target of VMH CRFR2 neurons.

  E Wiater , K. A Lewis , C Donaldson , J Vaughan , L Bilezikjian and W. Vale

Inhibins are endocrine hormones that regulate gametogenesis and reproduction through a negative feedback loop with FSH. Inhibin action involves antagonism of signaling by activin or other TGFβ family ligands. In transfection assays, antagonism by inhibin can be potentiated by betaglycan, a coreceptor for selected TGFβ family ligands. We tested whether betaglycan is an obligate inhibin coreceptor through disruption of betaglycan function by RNA interference-mediated knockdown and immunoneutralization. Betaglycan knockdown and anti-betaglycan IgG each independently prevented inhibin-A binding to betaglycan and reversed functional effects of transfected betaglycan. Neither betaglycan immunoneutralization nor knockdown affected activin responsiveness in cell lines or in rat anterior pituitary cultures. Betaglycan knockdown decreased the potency of inhibin antagonism of activin-induced FSH secretion in primary gonadotropes. Similarly, anti-betaglycan IgG decreased the potency of inhibin antagonism in primary gonadotropes in a dose-dependent manner, with a reduction in the sensitivity to inhibin-A of greater than 1000-fold. These data establish that betaglycan is an endogenous inhibin coreceptor required for high-sensitivity inhibin antagonism of activin signaling in rat anterior pituitary gonadotropes.

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