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Articles by J Rouleau
Total Records ( 3 ) for J Rouleau
  J Rodes Cabau , O. F Bertrand , E Larose , J. P Dery , S Rinfret , R Bagur , G Proulx , C. M Nguyen , M Cote , M. C Landcop , J. R Boudreault , J Rouleau , L Roy , O Gleeton , G Barbeau , B Noel , J Courtis , G. R Dagenais , J. P Despres and R. DeLarochelliere

Background— The presence of moderate saphenous vein graft (SVG) lesions is a major predictor of cardiac events late after coronary artery bypass grafting. We determined the effects of sealing moderate nonsignificant SVG lesions with paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) on the prevention of SVG atherosclerosis progression.

Methods and Results— Patients with at least 1 moderate SVG lesion (30% to 60% diameter stenosis) were randomized either to stenting the moderate SVG lesion with a PES (n=30, PES group) or to medical treatment alone (n=27, medical treatment group). Patients had an angiographic and intravascular ultrasound evaluation of the SVG at baseline and at 12-month follow-up. The primary end points were (1) the ultrasound SVG minimal lumen area at follow-up and (2) the changes in ultrasound atheroma volume in an angiographically nondiseased SVG segment. Mean time from coronary artery bypass grafting was 12±6 years, and mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was 73±31 mg/dL. A total of 70 moderate SVG lesions (39±7% diameter stenosis) were evaluated. Significant disease progression occurred in the medical treatment group at the level of the moderate SVG lesion (decrease in minimal lumen area from 6.3±3.0 to 5.6±3.1 mm2; P<0.001), leading to a severe flow-limiting lesion or SVG occlusion in 22% of the patients compared with none in the PES group (P=0.014). In the PES group, mean minimal lumen area increased (P<0.001) from 6.1±2.2 to 8.6±2.9 mm2 at follow-up (P=0.001 compared with the medical treatment group at 12 months). There were no cases of restenosis or stent thrombosis. No significant atherosclerosis progression occurred at the nonstented SVG segments. At 12-month follow-up, the cumulative incidence of major adverse cardiac events related to the target SVG was 19% in the medical treatment group versus 3% in the PES group (P=0.091).

Conclusions— Stenting moderate nonsignificant lesions in old SVGs with PES was associated with a lower rate of SVG disease progression and a trend toward a lower incidence of major adverse cardiac events at 1-year follow-up compared with medical treatment alone, despite very low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values. This pilot study supports further investigation into the role of plaque sealing in SVGs.

Clinical Trial Registration— URL: Unique identifier: NCT002289835.

  E. F Lewis , S. D Solomon , K. A Jablonski , M. M Rice , F Clemenza , J Hsia , A. P Maggioni , M Zabalgoitia , T Huynh , T. E Cuddy , B. J Gersh , J Rouleau , E Braunwald , M. A Pfeffer and on behalf of the PEACE Investigators

Background— Heart failure (HF) is a disease commonly associated with coronary artery disease. Most risk models for HF development have focused on patients with acute myocardial infarction. The Prevention of Events with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition population enabled the development of a risk model to predict HF in patients with stable coronary artery disease and preserved ejection fraction.

Methods and Results— In the 8290, Prevention of Events with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition patients without preexisting HF, new-onset HF hospitalizations, and fatal HF were assessed over a median follow-up of 4.8 years. Covariates were evaluated and maintained in the Cox regression multivariable model using backward selection if P<0.05. A risk score was developed and converted to an integer-based scoring system. Among the Prevention of Events with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition population (age, 64±8; female, 18%; prior myocardial infarction, 55%), there were 268 cases of fatal and nonfatal HF. Twelve characteristics were associated with increased risk of HF along with several baseline medications, including older age, history of hypertension, and diabetes. Randomization to trandolapril independently reduced the risk of HF. There was no interaction between trandolapril treatment and other risk factors for HF. The risk score (range, 0 to 21) demonstrated excellent discriminatory power (c-statistic 0.80). Risk of HF ranged from 1.75% in patients with a risk score of 0% to 33% in patients with risk score ≥16.

Conclusion— Among patients with stable coronary artery disease and preserved ejection fraction, traditional and newer factors were independently associated with increased risk of HF. Trandolopril decreased the risk of HF in these patients with preserved ejection fraction.

  L. M Mielniczuk , M. A Pfeffer , E. F Lewis , M. A Blazing , J. A de Lemos , S Mohanavelu , J Rouleau , K Fox , T. R Pedersen and R. M. Califf

Background and objectives: Chronic kidney disease is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes. The prognostic significance of worsening renal function has also been shown in various cohorts of cardiac disease; however, the predictors of worsening renal function and the contribution of inflammation remains to be established.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Worsening renal function was defined as a 25% or more decrease in estimated GFR (eGFR) over a 1-mo period in patients after a non-ST or ST elevation acute coronary syndromes participating in the Aggrastat-to-Zocor Trial; this occurred in 5% of the 3795 participants.

Results: A baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) in the fourth quartile was a significant predictor of developing worsening renal function (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.49, 4.14). After adjusting for baseline CRP and eGFR, worsening renal function remained a strong multivariate predictor for the combined cardiovascular composite of CV death, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure or stroke (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.1, 2.3).

Conclusions: Patients with an early decline in renal function after an acute coronary syndrome are at a significant increased risk for recurrent cardiovascular events. CRP is an independent predictor for subsequent decline in renal function and reinforces the idea that inflammation may be related to the pathophysiology of progressive renal disease.

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