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Articles by J Rao
Total Records ( 2 ) for J Rao
  S. L Park , D Bastani , B. Y Goldstein , S. C Chang , W Cozen , L Cai , C Cordon Cardo , B Ding , S Greenland , N He , S. K Hussain , Q Jiang , Y. C. A Lee , S Liu , M. L Lu , T. M Mack , J. T Mao , H Morgenstern , L. N Mu , S. S Oh , A Pantuck , J. C Papp , J Rao , V. E Reuter , D. P Tashkin , H Wang , N. C. Y You , S. Z Yu , J. K Zhao and Z. F. Zhang

Constituents of tobacco smoke can cause DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), leading to tumorigenesis. The NBS1 gene product is a vital component in DSB detection and repair, thus genetic variations may influence cancer development. We examined the associations between NBS1 polymorphisms and haplotypes and newly incident smoking-related cancers in three case–control studies (Los Angeles: 611 lung and 601 upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancer cases and 1040 controls; Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center: 227 bladder cancer cases and 211 controls and Taixing, China: 218 esophagus, 206 stomach, 204 liver cancer cases and 415 controls). rs1061302 was associated with cancers of the lung [adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2, 2.4], larynx (ORadj = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.97) and liver (ORadj = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.9). Additionally, positive associations were found for rs709816 with bladder cancer (ORadj = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 12) and rs1063054 with lung cancer (ORadj = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.3). Some associations in lung and stomach cancers varied with smoking status. CAC haplotype was positively associated with smoking-related cancers: lung (ORadj = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.9) and UADT (ORadj = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1, 3.7), specifically, oropharynx (ORadj = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 4.2) and larynx (ORadj = 4.8, 95% CI: 1.7, 14). Bayesian false-discovery probabilities were calculated to assess Type I error. It appears that NBS1 polymorphisms and haplotypes may be associated with smoking-related cancers and that these associations may differ by smoking status. Our findings also suggest that single-nucleotide polymorphisms located in the binding region of the MRE-RAD50-NBS1 complex or microRNA targeted pathways may influence tumor development. These hypotheses should be further examined in functional studies.

  B. S Zuckerbraun , S Shiva , E Ifedigbo , M. A Mathier , K. P Mollen , J Rao , P. M Bauer , J. J.W Choi , E Curtis , A. M.K Choi and M. T. Gladwin

Background— Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive proliferative vasculopathy of the small pulmonary arteries that is characterized by a primary failure of the endothelial nitric oxide and prostacyclin vasodilator pathways, coupled with dysregulated cellular proliferation. We have recently discovered that the endogenous anion salt nitrite is converted to nitric oxide in the setting of physiological and pathological hypoxia. Considering the fact that nitric oxide exhibits vasoprotective properties, we examined the effects of nitrite on experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Methods and Results— We exposed mice and rats with hypoxia or monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension to low doses of nebulized nitrite (1.5 mg/min) 1 or 3 times a week. This dose minimally increased plasma and lung nitrite levels yet completely prevented or reversed pulmonary arterial hypertension and pathological right ventricular hypertrophy and failure. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that nitrite in the lung was metabolized directly to nitric oxide in a process significantly enhanced under hypoxia and found to be dependent on the enzymatic action of xanthine oxidoreductase. Additionally, physiological levels of nitrite inhibited hypoxia-induced proliferation of cultured pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells via the nitric oxide–dependent induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Waf1/Cip1. The therapeutic effect of nitrite on hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension was significantly reduced in the p21-knockout mouse; however, nitrite still reduced pressures and right ventricular pathological remodeling, indicating the existence of p21-independent effects as well.

Conclusion— These studies reveal a potent effect of inhaled nitrite that limits pathological pulmonary arterial hypertrophy and cellular proliferation in the setting of experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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