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Articles by J Ormel
Total Records ( 3 ) for J Ormel
  S Seedat , K. M Scott , M. C Angermeyer , P Berglund , E. J Bromet , T. S Brugha , K Demyttenaere , G de Girolamo , J. M Haro , R Jin , E. G Karam , V Kovess Masfety , D Levinson , M. E Medina Mora , Y Ono , J Ormel , B. E Pennell , J Posada Villa , N. A Sampson , D Williams and R. C. Kessler
 

Context  Gender differences in mental disorders, including more anxiety and mood disorders among women and more externalizing disorders among men, are found consistently in epidemiological surveys. The gender roles hypothesis suggests that these differences narrow as the roles of women and men become more equal.

Objectives  To study time-space (cohort-country) variation in gender differences in lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders across cohorts in 15 countries in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative and to determine if this variation is significantly related to time-space variation in female gender role traditionality as measured by aggregate patterns of female education, employment, marital timing, and use of birth control.

Design  Face-to-face household surveys.

Setting  Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific.

Participants  Community-dwelling adults (N = 72 933).

Main Outcome Measures  The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 18 DSM-IV anxiety, mood, externalizing, and substance disorders. Survival analyses estimated time-space variation in female to male odds ratios of these disorders across cohorts defined by the following age ranges: 18 to 34, 35 to 49, 50 to 64, and 65 years and older. Structural equation analysis examined predictive effects of variation in gender role traditionality on these odds ratios.

Results  In all cohorts and countries, women had more anxiety and mood disorders than men, and men had more externalizing and substance disorders than women. Although gender differences were generally consistent across cohorts, significant narrowing was found in recent cohorts for major depressive disorder and substance disorders. This narrowing was significantly related to temporal (major depressive disorder) and spatial (substance disorders) variation in gender role traditionality.

Conclusions  While gender differences in most lifetime mental disorders were fairly stable over the time-space units studied, substantial intercohort narrowing of differences in major depression was found to be related to changes in the traditionality of female gender roles. Additional research is needed to understand why this temporal narrowing was confined to major depression.

  B. D Thombs , R. C Ziegelstein , L Pilote , D. J. A Dozois , A. T Beck , K. S Dobson , S Fuss , P de Jonge , S. L Grace , D. E Stewart , J Ormel and S. E. Abbey
 

Background

Depression measures that include somatic symptoms may inflate severity estimates among medically ill patients, including those with cardiovascular disease.

Aims

To evaluate whether people receiving in-patient treatment following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) had higher somatic symptom scores on the Beck Depression Inventory–II (BDI–II) than a non-medically ill control group matched on cognitive/affective scores.

Method

Somatic scores on the BDI–II were compared between 209 patients admitted to hospital following an AMI and 209 psychiatry out-patients matched on gender, age and cognitive/affective scores, and between 366 post-AMI patients and 366 undergraduate students matched on gender and cognitive/affective scores.

Results

Somatic symptoms accounted for 44.1% of total BDI–II score for the 209 post-AMI and psychiatry out-patient groups, 52.7% for the 366 post-AMI patients and 46.4% for the students. Post-AMI patients had somatic scores on average 1.1 points higher than the students (P<0.001). Across groups, somatic scores accounted for approximately 70% of low total scores (BDI–II <4) v. approximately 35% in patients with total BDI–II scores of 12 or more.

Conclusions

Our findings contradict assertions that self-report depressive symptom measures inflate severity scores in post-AMI patients. However, the preponderance of somatic symptoms at low score levels across groups suggests that BDI–II scores may include a small amount of somatic symptom variance not necessarily related to depression in post-AMI and non-medically ill respondents.

  R. C Kessler , K. A McLaughlin , J. G Green , M. J Gruber , N. A Sampson , A. M Zaslavsky , S Aguilar Gaxiola , A. O Alhamzawi , J Alonso , M Angermeyer , C Benjet , E Bromet , S Chatterji , G de Girolamo , K Demyttenaere , J Fayyad , S Florescu , G Gal , O Gureje , J. M Haro , C. y Hu , E. G Karam , N Kawakami , S Lee , J. P Lepine , J Ormel , J Posada Villa , R Sagar , A Tsang , T. B Ustun , S Vassilev , M. C Viana and D. R. Williams
 

Background

Although significant associations of childhood adversities with adult mental disorders are widely documented, most studies focus on single childhood adversities predicting single disorders.

Aims

To examine joint associations of 12 childhood adversities with first onset of 20 DSM–IV disorders in World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in 21 countries.

Method

Nationally or regionally representative surveys of 51 945 adults assessed childhood adversities and lifetime DSM–IV disorders with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).

Results

Childhood adversities were highly prevalent and interrelated. Childhood adversities associated with maladaptive family functioning (e.g. parental mental illness, child abuse, neglect) were the strongest predictors of disorders. Co-occurring childhood adversities associated with maladaptive family functioning had significant subadditive predictive associations and little specificity across disorders. Childhood adversities account for 29.8% of all disorders across countries.

Conclusions

Childhood adversities have strong associations with all classes of disorders at all life-course stages in all groups of WMH countries. Long-term associations imply the existence of as-yet undetermined mediators.

 
 
 
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