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Articles by J Martin
Total Records ( 8 ) for J Martin
  J Martin , J Barry , D Goggin , K Morgan , M Ward and T. O'Suilleabhain

Aims: The study aim was to calculate Irish alcohol-attributable fractions (AAFs) and to apply these measurements to existing data in order to quantify the impact of alcohol on mortality. Methods: Exposure of the Irish population to alcohol was derived from a national survey and combined with estimates of the alcohol–disease/injury risk association from meta-analyses in the international literature to calculate Irish AAFs. In diseases for which relative risk estimates were not available, such as injury, AAFs were taken directly from Ridolfo and Stevenson [(2001) The quantification of drug-caused mortality and morbidity in Australia, 1998. In Drug Statistics Series no. 7. AIHW cat. no. PHE 29. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra]. AAFs were applied to national datasets to calculate alcohol-attributed mortality caused or prevented and potential years of life lost (PYLL) or saved. Results: In Ireland, over the 5-year period from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004, alcohol was estimated to have caused 4.4% (6584) of deaths and 10.8% (131,245) of all-cause PYLL. Alcohol was estimated to have prevented 2.7% (3967) of deaths and 1.5% (18,285) of all-cause PYLL. This resulted in an estimated net effect of 1.8% (2616) of deaths and 9.3% (112,959) of all-cause PYLL. Chronic conditions were responsible for 69% of alcohol-attributable deaths and acute conditions for 31%. Conditions not wholly attributable to alcohol accounted for 83% of deaths as opposed to 17% for conditions wholly caused by alcohol. Conclusions: This study showed for the first time the full magnitude of deaths from alcohol in Ireland and revealed that while young people and those dependent on alcohol are at high risk of negative outcomes due to alcohol, particularly acute injuries, at an individual level, at a population level it is in fact moderate drinkers and chronic diseases, not wholly attributable to alcohol, that are associated with most alcohol-attributed deaths. The findings of this study suggest that policies focusing on the whole population attitude to alcohol, and chronic conditions and conditions partially attributable to alcohol, would yield considerable public health benefits.

  J Martin , P Kautt and L. Gelsthorpe

Women's completion rates on General Offending Programmes are significantly lower than men’s. Is this evidence of the programmes’ design and delivery being focused on men? This study uses multivariate statistical techniques on national data for 2006–07 to examine the characteristics significantly predicting completion rates for General Offending Programmes. In particular, it uses criminogenic factors from the OASys risk-assessment tool to identify the features predicting compliance, as captured by the Interim Accredited Programmes System (IAPS), and determine whether they differ between men and women. The results show significant variation between the women and men in the predictors of programme completion. The practical implications of these for research, policy and practice are discussed.

  A. S Tsao , D Liu , J Martin , X. m Tang , J. J Lee , A. K El Naggar , I Wistuba , K. S Culotta , L Mao , A Gillenwater , Y. M Sagesaka , W. K Hong and V. Papadimitrakopoulou

Epidemiologic and preclinical data support the oral cancer prevention potential of green tea extract (GTE). We randomly assigned patients with high-risk oral premalignant lesions (OPL) to receive GTE at 500, 750, or 1,000 mg/m2 or placebo thrice daily for 12 weeks, evaluating biomarkers in baseline and 12-week biopsies. The OPL clinical response rate was higher in all GTE arms (n = 28; 50%) versus placebo (n = 11; 18.2%; P = 0.09) but did not reach statistical significance. However, the two higher-dose GTE arms [58.8% (750 and 1,000 mg/m2), 36.4% (500 mg/m2), and 18.2% (placebo); P = 0.03] had higher responses, suggesting a dose-response effect. GTE treatment also improved histology (21.4% versus 9.1%; P = 0.65), although not statistically significant. GTE was well tolerated, although higher doses increased insomnia/nervousness but produced no grade 4 toxicity. Higher mean baseline stromal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) correlated with a clinical (P = 0.04) but not histologic response. Baseline scores of other biomarkers (epithelial VEGF, p53, Ki-67, cyclin D1, and p16 promoter methylation) were not associated with a response or survival. Baseline p16 promoter methylation (n = 5) was associated with a shorter cancer-free survival. Stromal VEGF and cyclin D1 expression were downregulated in clinically responsive GTE patients and upregulated in nonresponsive patients at 12 weeks (versus at baseline). An extended (median, 27.5 months) follow-up showed a median time to oral cancer of 46.4 months. GTE may suppress OPLs, in part through reducing angiogenic stimulus (stromal VEGF). Higher doses of GTE may improve short-term (12-week) OPL outcome. The present results support longer-term clinical testing of GTE for oral cancer prevention.

  J Martin and P. Lopez

Pheromones of vertebrates are often a mixture of several chemicals with different properties and messages, and their production seems condition dependent. Thus, pheromones are a good, but little studied, example of multiple sexual signals. Femoral gland secretions of male rock lizards Iberolacerta cyreni contain steroids that may act as pheromones, but there are also many other lipids, such as oleic acid, whose allocation to secretions may be costly because it has to be diverted from body fat reserves. This suggests that oleic acid could also have some function in secretions. Chemical analyses showed that proportions of oleic acid in femoral secretions of males were positively related to body condition of males, suggesting that the oleic acid secreted may reflect the amount of body fat reserves of a male. Tongue-flick bioassays showed that females were able to detect by chemosensory cues alone differences in proportions of oleic acid in secretions of males. Scents of males with more oleic acid elicited stronger chemosensory responses by females. Further tests with chemical standards confirmed that females distinguished oleic acid, and changes in its concentration, from other chemicals that are naturally found in secretions of males. Moreover, choice trials of scent-marked substrates showed that females were more attracted to areas that were experimentally manipulated to increase the proportion of oleic acid in natural scent marks of males. We suggest that oleic acid in femoral secretions might be a reliable advertisement of a male's body condition, which females could use to select high-quality mates in conjunction with information provided by other chemicals. Alternatively, scent marks with more oleic acid might be simply more attractive to females if chemosensory responses of females to scent of males were originated by a preexisting sensory bias for food chemicals such as the oleic acid. Nevertheless, this sensory trap might have evolved into an honest signal because the elaboration of the signal seems differentially costly for males with different body conditions.

  V. M Bruno , Z Wang , S. L Marjani , G. M Euskirchen , J Martin , G Sherlock and M. Snyder

Candida albicans is the major invasive fungal pathogen of humans, causing diseases ranging from superficial mucosal infections to disseminated, systemic infections that are often lifethreatening. We have used massively parallel high-throughput sequencing of cDNA (RNA-seq) to generate a high-resolution map of the C. albicans transcriptome under several different environmental conditions. We have quantitatively determined all of the regions that are transcribed under these different conditions, and have identified 602 novel transcriptionally active regions (TARs) and numerous novel introns that are not represented in the current genome annotation. Interestingly, the expression of many of these TARs is regulated in a condition-specific manner. This comprehensive transcriptome analysis significantly enhances the current genome annotation of C. albicans, a necessary framework for a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis for this important eukaryotic pathogen.

  L Gil , C Lopez , L Lazo , I Valdes , E Marcos , R Alonso , A Gambe , J Martin , Y Romero , M. G Guzman , G Guillen and L. Hermida

Virus-like particles are a highly effective type of subunit vaccine that mimics the overall structure of virus particles without containing infectious genetic material. In this work, a particulate form of the recombinant capsid protein from dengue-2 was evaluated in mice to determine the level of protection against viral challenge and to measure the antigen-induced cell-mediated immunity (CMI). The nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) adjuvanted with alum did not induce antiviral antibodies. However, splenocytes from the immunized animals secreted high levels of IFN- upon virus stimulation, and a significant protection rate was achieved after challenge with lethal dengue-2 virus. Finally, both IFN- secretion and protection against viral encephalitis were demonstrated to be dependent on CD4+ and CD8+ cells. This study provides new evidences regarding the protective role of the CMI in the mouse model without the induction of neutralizing antibodies. Further studies in non-human primates or humanized mice should be carried out to elucidate the usefulness of the NLPs as a potential vaccine candidate against dengue disease.

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