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Articles by J Lau
Total Records ( 2 ) for J Lau
  C. E Gordon , K Uhlig , J Lau , C. H Schmid , A. S Levey and J. B. Wong
 

Background and objectives: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is prevalent in hemodialysis patients and causes excess mortality. Interferon (IFN) treatment of chronic HCV infection in hemodialysis patients results in high sustained virological response (SVR) rates 6 mo after treatment. The authors aimed to identify factors associated with SVR in hemodialysis patients through analysis of individual patient data obtained from systematic review of published literature.

Design, setting, participants & measurements: Medline was searched from 1966 through February 2009, and prospective studies describing IFN treatment of hemodialysis patients with chronic HCV infection with published individual patient data were included. To identify factors associated with SVR, logistic regression was applied with adjustment for study.

Results: Twenty studies of IFN treatment provided data on 428 patients. Overall SVR was 45% and in univariate analyses was higher with: 1) three million units or higher three times weekly of IFN; 2) treatment for at least 6 mo; 3) treatment completion; 4) lower baseline HCV RNA; 5) female gender; and 6) early virological negativity. Although limited by missing data, these relationships persisted in multivariate regression.

Conclusions: SVR is more likely with larger IFN dose, longer treatment duration, treatment completion, female gender, lower HCV RNA and early virological negativity. For appropriate treatment candidates, regimens should consist of three million units of IFN three times weekly for at least 6 mo, with patients encouraged to complete the full course.

  F. J Swartling , M. R Grimmer , C. S Hackett , P. A Northcott , Q. W Fan , D. D Goldenberg , J Lau , S Masic , K Nguyen , S Yakovenko , X. N Zhe , H. C Flynn Gilmer , R Collins , M Nagaoka , J. J Phillips , R. B Jenkins , T Tihan , S. R Vandenberg , C. D James , K Tanaka , M. D Taylor , W. A Weiss and L. Chesler
 

Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling drives a minority of MB, correlating with desmoplastic pathology and favorable outcome. The majority, however, arises independently of SHH and displays classic or large cell anaplastic (LCA) pathology and poor prognosis. To identify common signaling abnormalities, we profiled mRNA, demonstrating misexpression of MYCN in the majority of human MB and negligible expression in normal cerebella. We clarified a role in pathogenesis by targeting MYCN (and luciferase) to cerebella of transgenic mice. MYCN-driven MB showed either classic or LCA pathologies, with Shh signaling activated in ~5% of tumors, demonstrating that MYCN can drive MB independently of Shh. MB arose at high penetrance, consistent with a role for MYCN in initiation. Tumor burden correlated with bioluminescence, with rare metastatic spread to the leptomeninges, suggesting roles for MYCN in both progression and metastasis. Transient pharmacological down-regulation of MYCN led to both clearance and senescence of tumor cells, and improved survival. Targeted expression of MYCN thus contributes to initiation, progression, and maintenance of MB, suggesting a central role for MYCN in pathogenesis.

 
 
 
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