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Articles by J Kim
Total Records ( 21 ) for J Kim
  A. S Kauffman , V. M Navarro , J Kim , D. K Clifton and R. A. Steiner
 

In mammals, puberty onset typically occurs earlier in females than in males, but the explanation for sexual differentiation in the tempo of pubertal development is unknown. Puberty in both sexes is a brain-dependent phenomenon and involves alterations in the sensitivity of neuronal circuits to gonadal steroid feedback as well as gonadal hormone-independent changes in neuronal circuitry. Kisspeptin, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, plays an essential but ill-defined role in pubertal maturation. Neurokinin B (NKB) is coexpressed with Kiss1 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and is also important for puberty. We tested whether sex differences in the timing of pubertal development are attributable to sexual differentiation of gonadal hormone-independent mechanisms regulating hypothalamic Kiss1/NKB gene expression. We found that, in juvenile females, gonadotropin secretion and expression of Kiss1 and NKB in the ARC increased immediately following ovariectomy, suggesting that prepubertal females have negligible gonadal hormone-independent restraint on their reproductive axis. In contrast, in similarly aged juvenile males, no changes occurred in LH levels or Kiss1 or NKB expression following castration, suggesting that gonadal hormone-independent mechanisms restrain kisspeptin/NKB-dependent activation of the male reproductive axis before puberty. Notably, adult mice of both sexes showed comparable rapid increases in Kiss1/NKB expression and LH secretion following gonadectomy, signifying that sex differences in the regulation of ARC Kiss1/NKB neurons are manifest only during peripubertal development. Our findings demonstrate that the mechanisms controlling pubertal activation of reproduction in mice are different between the sexes and suggest that gonadal hormone-independent central restraint on pubertal timing involves Kiss1/NKB neurons in the ARC.

  B Craiglow , J Kim , K Watsky and P. Heald
 

Background  Cardioversion and defibrillation have become widely used techniques aimed at restoring normal sinus rhythm in patients with cardiac arrhythmias. Following the procedure, cutaneous lesions are often seen at the site of the electrodes, but little has been reported regarding the evolution of such lesions over time.

Observations  Two patients presented with unusual, well-defined rectangular eruptions on the left back, and both reported a history of having undergone electrical cardioversion or defibrillation several years previously. The histologic characteristics of each lesion were distinct, and the management was symptomatic, with most of the relief coming from the recognition that the eruption was actually a self-limited manifestation of cardioversion and defibrillation.

Conclusions  The clinical cases and corresponding histologic findings represent possible long-term sequelae of electrical cardioversion or defibrillation. They are presented in order to enhance the diagnostic acumen of dermatologists and to avoid potential misdiagnosis.

  M. G Shrime , P. J Gullane , L Dawson , J Kim , R. W Gilbert , J. C Irish , D. H Brown and D. P. Goldstein
 

Objective  To evaluate the survival impact of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) in patients with early T stage (T1-2) oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) and a single positive lymph node.

Patients  Between 1983 and 2004, a total of 1539 patients were treated with surgery for T1-2N1 OCSCC.

Main Outcome Measures  The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to determine whether postoperative RT improves survival in patients with T1-2N1 OCSCC.

Results  Postoperative RT improved the 5-year overall survival rate (41.4% for surgery alone vs 54.2% for surgery plus RT [P < .001]). Improvement in overall survival in patients with T1N1 disease did not achieve statistical significance with the addition of RT in contradistinction to that in patients with T2N1 disease. Adjuvant RT improved survival in patients with T2 tongue and floor of mouth disease (52.3% vs 37.9% [P = .002] and 39.9% vs 17.7% [P = .003], respectively).

Conclusion  In cases involving T1-2N1 OCSCC in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, the use of RT is associated with statistically significant improved overall survival and cause-specific survival in patients with T2 disease, most strongly in the oral tongue and the floor of the mouth.

  J Kim , J Liu , N Colabianchi and R. R. Pate
 

Objective  To test whether physical activity and sedentary behaviors are associated with perceived and structural neighborhood conditions.

Design  Secondary analysis of data from wave I (1994-1995) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in the United States.

Setting  In-home interviews of adolescents and their parents.

Participants  Thirteen thousand six hundred sixty-eight adolescents (6794 adolescent boys and 6874 adolescent girls; grades 7-12).

Main Exposures  Perceived neighborhood conditions (public nuisance, acquaintanceship, and informal control measured at both individual and census tract levels) and structural neighborhood characteristics (concentrated poverty, immigrant concentration, and residential stability at the census tract level).

Outcome Measures  Failure to meet moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines (<5 bouts of MVPA per week) and excessive screen time (>2 hours per day).

Results  Individual-level perception of intermediate (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-0.84) or high (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.50-0.61) acquaintanceship and high informal control (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.99) in the neighborhood were negatively associated with failure to meet the MVPA guidelines compared with lower levels. At the census tract level, high informal control (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.04-1.29) and intermediate (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.26) and high (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06-1.40) concentrated poverty compared with lower levels were also associated with failing to meet the MVPA guidelines (when adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics). Compared with the lowest levels, high public nuisance (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.04-1.36) and immigrant concentration (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.38) at the census tract level were associated with excessive screen time.

Conclusion  These findings suggest that both perceptual and structural neighborhood factors should be considered to understand adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behaviors.

  I Sohn , J Kim , S. H Jung and C. Park
 

Motivation: There has been an increasing interest in expressing a survival phenotype (e.g. time to cancer recurrence or death) or its distribution in terms of a subset of the expression data of a subset of genes. Due to high dimensionality of gene expression data, however, there is a serious problem of collinearity in fitting a prediction model, e.g. Cox's proportional hazards model. To avoid the collinearity problem, several methods based on penalized Cox proportional hazards models have been proposed. However, those methods suffer from severe computational problems, such as slow or even failed convergence, because of high-dimensional matrix inversions required for model fitting. We propose to implement the penalized Cox regression with a lasso penalty via the gradient lasso algorithm that yields faster convergence to the global optimum than do other algorithms. Moreover the gradient lasso algorithm is guaranteed to converge to the optimum under mild regularity conditions. Hence, our gradient lasso algorithm can be a useful tool in developing a prediction model based on high-dimensional covariates including gene expression data.

Results: Results from simulation studies showed that the prediction model by gradient lasso recovers the prognostic genes. Also results from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma datasets and Norway/Stanford breast cancer dataset indicate that our method is very competitive compared with popular existing methods by Park and Hastie and Goeman in its computational time, prediction and selectivity.

  A Shin , E. R Cho , J Kim , J Sung , K. W Park , M. K Lim and H. R. Shin
 

Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viral infections are the most important risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is responsible for 17.5% of cancer deaths in Korea. The objectives of this study were to identify demographic characteristics that may affect hepatitis carriers' awareness of their infection status, and to assess whether health-related behaviors differed by awareness of the infection. Among 18,636 persons who were recruited from a cancer screenee cohort, 904 were HBV carriers and 146 were HCV carriers. Among the HBV carriers, 74.2% were aware of their infection status. Higher education (odds ratio, 1.8; college versus middle school or less), family history of liver cancer or disease, and marriage were associated with awareness of HBV infection status. Participants who were aware of their HBV carrier status were more likely to be former smokers or drinkers than those who were not aware of their status. Only 34.9% of HCV carriers were aware of their HCV infection status. No demographic characteristics were related to awareness of HCV infection status among HCV carriers. However, HCV carriers who were aware of their infection status were more likely to be former drinkers (odds ratio, 9.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-47.2). In conclusion, two thirds of HCV carriers and one fourth of HBV carriers in this study population were not aware of their infection status, and awareness of hepatitis infection status was significantly associated with other risk behaviors, such as alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(6):1894–8)

  I. S Song , S. U Kim , N. S Oh , J Kim , D. Y Yu , S. M Huang , J. M Kim , D. S Lee and N. S. Kim
 

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance of many cancers. We evaluated the role of peroxiredoxin (Prx) I in TRAIL resistance governed by coupling of nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox)-derived ROS signaling with the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/caspase-signaling cascade in liver cancer cells. Upregulated Prx I expression was found in neoplastic regions of human patient liver, and Prx I knockdown resulted in accelerated TRAIL-induced cell death in SK-Hep-1 human hepatoma cells. The TRAIL cytotoxicity by Prx I knockdown was dependent on activation of caspase-8/3 cascades, which was ablated by addition of inhibitors for p38 MAPK, ROS or Nox, suggesting the association with Nox-driven redox signaling. Furthermore, we found that Nox4 was constitutively expressed in both SK-Hep-1 cells and tumor regions of patient livers, knockdown of Nox4 expression could alleviate ROS generation and TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity. In accordance with previous findings, increased activation of both p38 MAPK and caspase cascades by Prx I knockdown was inhibited by either Nox4 knockdown or SB203580 addition. Collectively, these data suggest that Prx I functions to block propagation of Nox-derived ROS signaling to the p38 MAPK/caspase/cell death cascade during TRAIL treatment and also provides a molecular mechanism by which Prx I contributes to TRAIL resistance in liver cancers.

  T. H Lee , S. H Song , K. L Kim , J. Y Yi , G. H Shin , J. Y Kim , J Kim , Y. M Han , S. H Lee , S. H Shim and W. Suh
 

Rationale: Generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has been intensively studied by a variety of reprogramming methods, but the molecular and functional properties of the cells differentiated from iPS cells have not been well characterized.

Objective: To address this issue, we generated iPS cells from human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) using lentiviral transduction of defined transcription factors and differentiated these iPS cells back into smooth muscle cells (SMCs).

Methods and Results: Established iPS cells were shown to possess properties equivalent to human embryonic stem cells, in terms of the cell surface markers, global mRNA and microRNA expression patterns, epigenetic status of OCT4, REX1, and NANOG promoters, and in vitro/in vivo pluripotency. The cells were differentiated into SMCs to enable a direct, comparative analysis with HASMCs, from which the iPS cells originated. We observed that iPS cell–derived SMCs were very similar to parental HASMCs in gene expression patterns, epigenetic modifications of pluripotency-related genes, and in vitro functional properties. However, the iPS cells still expressed a significant amount of lentiviral transgenes (OCT4 and LIN28) because of partial gene silencing.

Conclusions: Our study reports, for the first time, the generation of iPS cells from HASMCs and their differentiation into SMCs. Moreover, a parallel comparative analysis of human iPS cell–derived SMCs and parental HASMCs revealed that iPS-derived cells possessed representative molecular and in vitro functional characteristics of parental HASMCs, suggesting that iPS cells hold great promise as an autologous cell source for patient-specific cell therapy.

  J Kim and S. Hong
 

In this paper, we introduce a new side-channel attack using block cipher cryptanalysis named a meet-in-the-middle attack. Using our new side-channel technique we show that advanced encryption standard (AES) with reduced 10 masked rounds is broken, which is faster than the exhaustive key search attack. This implies that one has to mask the entire rounds of the 12-round 192-bit key AES to prevent our attacks. Our result is the first one to analyse AES with reduced 10 masked rounds, while the previous best known side-channel attack is on AES with reduced eight masked rounds.

  C. L Beites , P. L. W Hollenbeck , J Kim , R Lovell Badge , A. D Lander and A. L. Calof
  Crestina L. Beites, Piper L. W. Hollenbeck, Joon Kim, Robin Lovell-Badge, Arthur D. Lander, and Anne L. Calof

The regenerative capacity of many placode-derived epithelial structures makes them of interest for understanding the molecular control of epithelial stem cells and their niches. Here, we investigate the interaction between the developing epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme in one such system, the taste papillae and sensory taste buds of the mouse tongue. We identify follistatin (FST) as a mesenchymal factor that controls size, patterning and gustatory cell differentiation in developing taste papillae. FST limits expansion and differentiation of Sox2-expressing taste progenitor cells and negatively regulates the development of taste papillae in the lingual epithelium: in Fst-/- tongue, there is both ectopic development of Sox2-expressing taste progenitors and accelerated differentiation of gustatory cells. Loss of Fst leads to elevated activity and increased expression of epithelial Bmp7; the latter effect is consistent with BMP7 positive autoregulation, a phenomenon we demonstrate directly. We show that FST and BMP7 influence the activity and expression of other signaling systems that play important roles in the development of taste papillae and taste...

  J Kim , I. C Bagchi and M. K. Bagchi
 

The steroid hormone progesterone, acting via its nuclear receptor, is a major regulator of the process of ovulation. Female mice lacking progesterone receptor (PGR) exhibit an anovulatory phenotype due to failure in follicular rupture. To identify the PGR-regulated pathways that control ovulation, we analyzed global changes in gene expression in the ovaries of wild-type and Pgr-null mice subjected to gonadotropin-induced superovulation. Our analysis uncovered several genes whose expression was reduced in the Pgr-null ovaries compared with the wild-type ovaries immediately preceding ovulation. Interestingly, these genes included three hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs): HIF-1, HIF-2, and HIF-1β. These transcription factors form β-heterodimers, which regulate the transcription of specific cellular genes, thereby mediating adaptive response of the tissue to low-oxygen levels. We observed that the expression of mRNAs and proteins corresponding to HIF-1, HIF-2, and HIF-1β was induced in a PGR-dependent manner, specifically in the granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicles. Inhibition of the HIF transcriptional activity by echinomycin, a small-molecule inhibitor that suppresses the binding of HIF β-heterodimers to target genes, blocked ovulation by preventing the rupture of the preovulatory follicles. Echinomycin specifically inhibited the expression of genes that are known regulators of ovulation, such as a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin-like motifs-1 and endothelin-2. Furthermore, echinomycin reduced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A, a key factor controlling vascularization/angiogenesis during ovulation. Collectively, these findings unveiled a novel ovarian role for the HIF transcription factors during the ovulatory period in mice.

  K. M Kim , H Cho , K Choi , J Kim , B. W Kim , Y. G Ko , S. K Jang and Y. K. Kim
 

During or right after mRNA export via the nuclear pore complex (NPC) in mammalian cells, mRNAs undergo translation mediated by nuclear cap-binding proteins 80 and 20 (CBP80/20). After CBP80/20-dependent translation, CBP80/20 is replaced by cytoplasmic cap-binding protein eIF4E, which directs steady-state translation. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), one of the best-characterized mRNA surveillance mechanisms, has been shown to occur on CBP80/20-bound mRNAs. However, despite the tight link between CBP80/20-dependent translation and NMD, the underlying molecular mechanism and cellular factors that mediate CBP80/20-dependent translation remain obscure. Here, we identify a new MIF4G domain-containing protein, CTIF (CBP80/20-dependent translation initiation factor). CTIF interacts directly with CBP80 and is part of the CBP80/20-dependent translation initiation complex. Depletion of endogenous CTIF from an in vitro translation system selectively blocks the translation of CBP80-bound mRNAs, while addition of purified CTIF restores it. Accordingly, down-regulation of endogenous CTIF abrogates NMD. Confocal microscopy shows that CTIF is localized to the perinuclear region. Our observations demonstrate the existence of CBP80/20-dependent translation and support the idea that CBP80/20-dependent translation is mechanistically different from steady-state translation through identification of a specific cellular protein, CTIF.

  J Hargreaves , A Hatcher , V Strange , G Phetla , J Busza , J Kim , C Watts , L Morison , J Porter , P Pronyk and C. Bonell
 

The Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE) combines microfinance, gender/HIV training and community mobilization (CM) in South Africa. A trial found reduced intimate partner violence among clients but less evidence for impact on sexual behaviour among clients’ households or communities. This process evaluation examined how feasible IMAGE was to deliver and how accessible and acceptable it was to intended beneficiaries during a trial and subsequent scale-up. Data came from attendance registers, financial records, observations, structured questionnaires (378) and focus group discussions and interviews (128) with clients and staff. Gender/HIV training and CM were managed initially by an academic unit (‘linked’ model) and later by the microfinance institution (MFI) (‘parallel’ model). Microfinance and gender/HIV training were feasible to deliver and accessible and acceptable to most clients. Though participation in CM was high for some clients, others experienced barriers to collective action, a finding which may help explain lack of intervention effects among household/community members. Delivery was feasible in the short term but both models were considered unsustainable in the longer term. A linked model involving a MFI and a non-academic partner agency may be more sustainable and is being tried. Feasible models for delivering microfinance and health promotion require further investigation.

  S. Y Kang , D Howard , J Kim , J. S Payne , L Wilton , W Kim and D. Maramba
  Background

US Department of Health and Human Services reported that the lack of English language proficiency and the shortage of providers who possessed appropriate language skills were identified as major barriers to mental health service use for approximately half of the population of Asians and Pacific Islanders. The aim of this study was to examine the predictors of lifetime mental health service use in relation to English language proficiency among Asian Americans.

Methods

Data from 2095 Asian participants from the National Latino and Asian American Study were analyzed using logistic regression.

Results

Respondents with better English language proficiency and with a mental health diagnosis were more inclined to use mental health services. Participants who were born in the USA, who were widowed, separated or divorced, who sought comfort from religion, who reported worse physical and mental health self-ratings were more likely to use mental health services. The lack of health insurance coverage was not a significant predictor.

Conclusions

The public health implications for behavioral health include the need to educate health-care providers working with Asian Americans regarding the benefits derived from seeking services and making interpreter services available in a culturally sensitive environment.

  J Kim , I. C Bagchi and M. K. Bagchi
 

The mid-cycle surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) induces ovulation, a process during which a fertilizable oocyte is released from a mature ovarian follicle. Although ovulation is a physiologically well-characterized event, the underlying molecular pathways remain poorly understood. Progesterone receptor (PGR), which mediates the biological effects of the steroid hormone progesterone, has emerged as a key regulator of ovulation in mice. The development of a progesterone-receptor-null (Pgr-null) mouse model confirmed a critical role of this hormone in ovulation because in these mutant mice, mature pre-ovulatory follicles fail to release the oocytes. This animal model has thus presented a unique opportunity to study the molecular pathways underlying ovulation. Gene-expression profiling experiments by several groups, using the ovaries of Pgr-null mice, revealed novel gene networks, which act downstream of PGR to control ovulation. These genes encode diverse molecules such as proteases, transcription factors, cell-adhesion molecules, modulators of vascular activities and regulators of inflammation. Functional analyses using gene-knockout mouse models have confirmed that some of these factors play critical roles during ovulation. The knowledge gained from these studies has helped us to understand better the molecular mechanisms that facilitate the release of oocytes from pre-ovulatory follicles. Further analysis of the role of molecular regulators of ovulation will help identify useful molecular targets that would allow the development of improved contraceptives and new therapeutics for anovulatory infertility.

  J Kim , W Xing , J Wergedal , J. Y Chan and S. Mohan
 

Previous in vitro studies found that nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 1 (NFE2L1) was involved in mediating ascorbic acid-induced osterix expression and osteoblast differentiation via binding to the antioxidant response element of the osterix promoter. To test the role of NFE2L1 in regulating bone formation in vivo, we disrupted NFE2L1 specifically in osteoblasts. Mice expressing Cre under the control of Col12 promoter were crossed with NFE2L1 loxP mice to generate Cre+ knockout (KO) and Cre– wild-type (WT) mice. Skeletal measurements by DEXA revealed 8–10% and 9–11% reduction in total body BMC and bone area in the KO mice from 3 to 8 wk of age. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography analyses found both periosteal and endosteal circumferences were reduced by 6% at the middiaphysis of the femurs from 8 wk old KO mice. Histomorphometric analyses revealed reduced bone formation was a cause for reduced bone size in the KO mice. Microcomputed tomography analysis of the metaphysis of the femur revealed that trabecular bone volume/total volume, and trabecular numbers were decreased by 30 and 53% in the NFE2L1 KO mice. Expression of osterix was decreased by 57% in the bones of NFE2L1 KO mice. In vitro nodule assay demonstrated that mineralized nodule area was reduced by 68% in the cultures of bone marrow stromal cells from NFE2L1 KO mice. Treatment of primary osteoblasts with ascorbic acid increased osterix expression by fourfold, whereas loss of NFE2L1 in osteoblasts diminished ascorbic acid stimulation of osterix expression by 50%. Our data provide the first in vivo experimental evidence that NFE2L1 produced by osteoblasts is involved in regulating osterix expression, osteoblast differentiation, and bone formation.

  J Kim , R Allaire and C. D. Harner
  Background

High tibial osteotomy is technically demanding. Risks include injury to the popliteal neurovascular bundle. The present goal was to further define this risk.

Hypothesis

The distance from the posterior tibia to the popliteal artery increases with increasing knee flexion. A saw angle perpendicular to the coronal plane can injure the popliteal artery.

Study Design

Descriptive laboratory study.

Methods

Seven fresh-frozen cadaveric lower extremities were used. Lateral radiographs at knee flexion angles of 90°, 60°, 45°, 30°, and 0° were taken to measure the distance from the anterior border of the popliteal artery to the posterior cortex of the tibia 5.0 mm and 2.0 cm below the joint line. After an opening wedge high tibial osteotomy was made, qualitative assessments were made of the depth of a saw blade inserted into the kerf and the relative encroachment of the saw blade on the popliteal artery. The interval through which the space anterior to the popliteus can be accessed was identified by gross dissection in all specimens.

Results

The distance from the posterior tibia to the popliteal artery increased with knee flexion. At 5.0 mm and 2.0 cm below the joint line, the mean distance at 90° was significantly greater than at all other angles. The popliteal artery could be injured by the oscillating saw at angles greater than 30° to the coronal plane. A protective device inserted anterior to the popliteus protects the neurovascular structures.

Conclusion

The popliteal artery is farthest from the posterior tibia at 90° of knee flexion. Saw angles greater than 30° from the coronal plane put the popliteal neurovasculature at risk of injury.

Clinical Relevance

To perform a safe osteotomy, the knee should be positioned in 90° of flexion with the saw angled less than 30° from the coronal plane. A protective device deep to the popliteus may protect against popliteal injury.

  M. T Kim , H. R Han , H. J Song , J. E Lee , J Kim , J. P Ryu and K. B. Kim
 

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to test the efficacy of a culturally tailored comprehensive type 2 diabetes management intervention for Korean American immigrants (KAIs) with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

A randomized controlled pilot trial with 2 parallel arms (intervention vs control) with a delayed intervention design was used. A total of 79 KAIs, recruited from the Baltimore-Washington area, completed baseline, 18-week, and 30-week follow-ups (intervention, n = 40; control, n = 39). All participants had uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (hemoglobin A1C ≥7.5%) at baseline. The authors' comprehensive, self-help intervention program for type 2 diabetes management (SHIP-DM) consisted of a 6-week structured psychobehavioral education, home glucose monitoring with teletransmission, and bilingual nurse telephone counseling for 24 weeks. The primary outcome of the study was A1C level, and secondary outcomes included an array of psychobehavioral variables.

Results

Using analysis of covariance, the findings support that the proposed intervention was effective in significantly lowering A1C and fasting glucose and also in improving psychosocial outcomes in the sample. Specifically, the amount of reduction in A1C among intervention group participants was 1.19% at 18 weeks and 1.31% at 30 weeks, with 10% and 15.5% of the participants achieving the suggested goal of A1C <7% at 18 and 30 weeks of follow-up, respectively.

Conclusions

The results highlight the clinical efficacy of the SHIP-DM intervention composed of a 6-week education program, self-monitoring, and follow-up counseling, in terms of maintaining the improved intervention effects obtained and in terms of glucose control.

  H. J Song , H. R Han , J. E Lee , J Kim , K. B Kim , T Nguyen and M. T. Kim
 

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to describe the process of translating evidence-based dietary guidelines into a tailored nutrition education program for Korean American immigrants (KAI) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a research process involving researchers and communities to build a collaborative partnership. The study was conducted at a community-based organization. In a total of 79 KAI (intervention, n = 40; control, n = 39) with uncontrolled type 2 DM (A1C ≥7.5%), 44.3% were female and the mean age was 56. 5 ± 7.9 years. A culturally tailored nutrition education was developed by identifying community needs and evaluating research evidence. The efficacy and acceptability of the program was assessed.

Results

In translating dietary guidelines into a culturally relevant nutrition education, culturally tailored dietary recommendations and education instruments were used. While dietary guidelines from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) were used to frame nutrition recommendations, additional content was adopted from the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) guidelines. Culturally relevant intervention materials, such as Korean food models and an individually tailored serving table, were utilized to solidify nutritional concepts as well as to facilitate meal planning. Evaluation of the education revealed significantly increased DM-specific nutrition knowledge in the intervention group. The participants’ satisfaction with the education was 9.7 on a 0 to10-point scale.

Conclusion

The systematic translation approach was useful for producing a culturally tailored nutrition education program for KAI. The program was effective in improving the participants’ DM-specific nutrition knowledge and yielded a high level of satisfaction. Future research is warranted to determine the effect of a culturally tailored nutrition education on other clinical outcomes.

  A. H Warner , O Miroshnychenko , A Kozarova , P. O Vacratsis , T. H MacRae , J Kim and J. S. Clegg
 

The presence of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins in plants and animals has been linked to their ability to tolerate a variety of environmental stresses. Among animals, encysted embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana are among the most stress resistant eukaryotes, and for that reason it is considered to be an extremophile. The study presented here demonstrates that these embryos contain multiple group 1 LEA proteins with masses of 21, 19, 15.5 and 13 kDa. The LEA proteins first appear in diapause-destined embryos, beginning at ~4 days post-fertilization, but not in nauplii-destined embryos. After resumption of embryonic development, the LEA proteins decline slowly in the desiccation resistant encysted stages, then disappear rapidly as the embryo emerges from its shell. LEA proteins are absent in fully emerged embryos, larvae and adults. They are abundant in mitochondria of encysted embryos, but barely detectable in nuclei and absent from yolk platelets. LEA proteins were also detected in dormant embryos of six other species of Artemia from hypersaline environments around the world. This study enhances our knowledge of the group 1 LEA proteins in stress tolerant crustacean embryos.

 
 
 
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