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Articles by J James
Total Records ( 4 ) for J James
  E. L Moses Kolko , S. B Perlman , K. L Wisner , J James , A. T Saul and M. L. Phillips
  Objective:

Postpartum major depression is a significant public health problem that strikes 15% of new mothers and confers adverse consequences for mothers, children, and families. The neural mechanisms involved in postpartum depression remain unknown, but brain processing of affective stimuli appears to be involved in other affective disorders. The authors examined activity in response to negative emotional faces in the dorsomedial pre-frontal cortex and amygdala, key emotion regulatory neural regions of importance to both mothering and depression.

Method:

Postpartum healthy mothers (N=16) and unmedicated depressed mothers (N=14) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging blood-oxygen-level-dependent acquisition during a block-designed face versus shape matching task. A two-way analysis of variance was performed examining main effects of condition and group and group-by-condition interaction on activity in bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortical and amygdala regions of interest.

Results:

Depressed mothers relative to healthy mothers had significantly reduced left dorsomedial prefrontal cortical face-related activity. In depressed mothers, there was also a significant negative correlation between left amygdala activity and postpartum depression severity and a significant positive correlation between right amygdala activity and absence of infant-related hostility. There was reliable top-down connectivity from the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex to the left amygdala in healthy, but not depressed, mothers.

Conclusions:

Significantly diminished dorsomedial prefrontal cortex activity and dorsomedial prefrontal cortical-amygdala effective connectivity in response to negative emotional faces may represent an important neural mechanism, or effect, of postpartum depression. Reduced amygdala activity in response to negative emotional faces is associated with greater postpartum depression severity and more impaired maternal attachment processes in postpartum depressed mothers.

  C Monk , M Wallage , J Wassell , A Whiteway , J James and R. Beetham
 

We describe a patient being investigated for anaemia where the lipaemia index on a Beckman Coulter DxC800 analyser was markedly elevated and out of keeping with the visual appearance of the serum. Subsequent investigation revealed a monoclonal IgM kappa immunoglobulin with type I cryoglobulin behaviour. The patient was then diagnosed with a non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. We later identified a second patient with a similar anomalous index with an IgM lambda paraprotein, and a known marginal zone splenic lymphoma but were unable to confirm cryoglobulin behaviour prior to treatment. A review of 50 consecutive IgM paraproteins revealed no other anomalous lipaemia indices. We postulate that it is the properties of the paraprotein that determine its cryoglobulin behaviour that also render it susceptible to precipitation in the index diluent, not the fact of it being an IgM paraprotein per se. This appears to be the first reported case of a paraprotein identified following an anomalous lipaemia index.

  T Suzuki , B. M Palmer , J James , Y Wang , Z Chen , P VanBuren , D. W Maughan , J Robbins and M. M. LeWinter
 

Background— The left ventricles of both rabbits and humans express predominantly β-myosin heavy chain (MHC). Transgenic (TG) rabbits expressing 40% -MHC are protected against tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy, but the normal amount of -MHC expressed in humans is only 5% to 7% and its functional importance is questionable. This study was undertaken to identify a myofilament-based mechanism underlying tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy protection and to extrapolate the impact of MHC isoform variation on myofilament function in human hearts.

Methods and Results— Papillary muscle strips from TG rabbits expressing 40% (TG40) and 15% -MHC (TG15) and from nontransgenic (NTG) controls expressing 100% β-MHC (NTG40 and NTG15) were demembranated and calcium activated. Myofilament tension and calcium sensitivity were similar in TGs and respective NTGs. Force-clamp measurements revealed 50% higher power production in TG40 versus NTG40 (P<0.001) and 20% higher power in TG15 versus NTG15 (P<0.05). A characteristic of acto-myosin crossbridge kinetics, the "dip" frequency, was significantly higher in TG40 versus NTG40 (0.70±0.04 versus 0.39±0.09 Hz, P<0.01) but not in TG15 versus NTG15. The calculated crossbridge time-on was also significantly shorter in TG40 (102.3±14.2 ms) versus NTG40 (175.7±19.7 ms) but not in TG15 versus NTG15.

Conclusions— The incorporation of 40% -MHC leads to greater myofilament power production and more rapid crossbridge cycling, which facilitate ejection and relengthening during short cycle intervals, and thus protect against tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy. Our results suggest, however, that, even when compared with the virtual absence of -MHC in the failing heart, the 5% to 7% -MHC content of the normal human heart has little if any functional significance.

  D Lleres , J James , S Swift , D. G Norman and A. I. Lamond
 

FRET analysis of cell lines expressing fluorescently tagged histones on separate nucleosomes demonstrates that variations in chromosome compaction occur during mitosis.

 
 
 
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