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Articles by J He
Total Records ( 13 ) for J He
  J He , R Xu , X Chen , K Jia , X Zhou and K. Zhu

To reduce the immunogenicity of recombinant staphylokinase, structure-based mutagenesis of Glu80 residue in wild-type staphylokinase (wt-Sak) was rationally designed and carried out by a modified QuikChange site-directed mutagenesis. Sak mutants, including Sak(E80A) and Sak(E80S), were successfully expressed in E. coli DH5 as a soluble cytoplasmic proteins and accounted for more than 40% of the total cellular proteins. The expressed proteins were purified by a three-step chromatographic purification process. SDS–PAGE and HPLC analyses results indicated that the purified proteins were almost completely homogeneous and the purities of Sak mutants exceeded 97%. Analysis of fibrinolytic activity revealed that substitution of E80 residue with serine and alanine resulted in slightly increased specific activities of Sak mutants. Investigation of the immunogenicity of Sak mutants showed that the amount of specific anti-Sak IgG antibodies elicited by Sak(E80A) and Sak(E80S) in BALB/c mice decreased ~35% and 27%, respectively compared with wt-Sak. The abilities of Sak mutants to stimulate proliferation of T cells from BALB/c mice and to bind mouse anti-Sak polyclonal serum were significantly lower than those of wt-Sak. These results suggested that substitution of Glu80 residue by alanine and serine successfully eliminated part of T- and B-cell epitope of Sak molecule. Our findings suggested that simultaneous elimination of T- and B-cell epitopes was a useful method to reduce the immunogenicity of wt-Sak molecule and provided a strategy for engineering safe Sak-based fibrinolytics for the clinical treatment of acute myocardial infarction.

  K. B Nelson , A. K Richardson , J He , T. M Lateef , S Khoromi and K. R. Merikangas

Objective  To examine the association of childhood headache disorders with markers of risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.

Design  Information was collected on severe or recurrent headache or migraine in childhood or adolescence and on biomarkers predictive of vascular disease.

Setting  The National Health and Nutrition Survey, a nationally representative health survey.

Participants  Children or adolescents aged 4 to 19 years (n = 11 770) who took part in the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 1999 through 2004.

Main Exposure  Headache.

Main Outcome Measures  Body mass index; levels of C-reactive protein, homocysteine, serum and red blood cell folate, vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid; and platelet count.

Results  Mean values for body mass index, C-reactive protein, and homocysteine were higher in children with than without headaches, and more children with headaches were in the highest quintile of risk for these factors. Serum and red blood cell folate levels were lower in children with headache. More children with headache were in the highest quintile of risk for 3 or more of these factors.

Conclusions  Several important risk factors for long-term vascular morbidity cluster in children and adolescents with severe or recurrent headache or migraine. Further study and screening of children with headaches may permit improved preventive management.

  H Fu , J He , F Mei , Q Zhang , Y Hara , S Ryota , R. A Lubet , R Chen , D. R Chen and M. You

Green tea has been shown to exhibit cancer-preventive activities in preclinical studies. However, (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) alone was shown to be ineffective in preventing lung tumorigenesis in mice by aerosol administration. In this study, Polyphenon E and Polyphenon E without EGCG were administered by aerosol delivery to A/J mice 2 weeks after carcinogen treatment and continuing daily throughout the remainder of the study (20 weeks). An improved aerosol delivery system with a custom-built atomizer, an efficient solvent remove system, and a nose-only exposure chamber was used to provide aerosols with stable size distribution. There were no significant differences in the size distributions of Polyphenon E and Polyphenon E without EGCG. With a relatively low dose level (4.19 mg/kg), Polyphenon E decreased tumor multiplicity by 53%, whereas Polyphenon E without EGCG at the same dose failed to inhibit lung carcinogenesis. These results indicate that aerosol administration can be an effective approach in chemoprevention study, and aerosolized Polyphenon E can significantly inhibit pulmonary adenoma formation and growth in A/J mice. Furthermore, in aerosolized form, EGCG, which is thought to be the most active component of Polyphenon E, has to be present with other tea catechins to show chemopreventive activity on lung tumorigenesis.

  J. B Williams , D Pang , B Delgado , M Kocherginsky , M Tretiakova , T Krausz , D Pan , J He , M. K McClintock and S. D. Conzen

Clinical studies have revealed that social support improves the outcome of cancer patients, whereas epidemiologic studies suggest that social isolation increases the risk of death associated with several chronic diseases. However, the precise molecular consequences of an unfavorable social environment have not been defined. To do so, robust, reproducible preclinical models are needed to study the mechanisms whereby an adverse environment affects gene expression and cancer biology. Because random assignment of inbred laboratory mice to well-defined social environments allows accurate and repeated measurements of behavioral and endocrine parameters, transgenic mice provide a preclinical framework with which to begin to determine gene-environment mechanisms. In this study, we found that female C3(1)/SV40 T-antigen mice deprived of social interaction from weaning exhibited increased expression of genes encoding key metabolic pathway enzymes in the premalignant mammary gland. Chronic social isolation was associated with up-regulated lipid synthesis and glycolytic pathway gene expression—both pathways are known to contribute to increased breast cancer growth. Consistent with the expression of metabolic genes in premalignant mammary tissue, isolated mice subsequently developed a significantly larger mammary gland tumors burden compared with group-housed mice. Endocrine evaluation confirmed that isolated mice developed a heightened corticosterone stress response compared with group-housed mice. Together, these transdisciplinary studies show for the first time that an adverse social environment is associated with altered mammary gland gene expression and tumor growth. Moreover, the identification of specific alterations in metabolic pathways gene expression favoring tumor growth suggests potential molecular biomarkers and/or targets (e.g., fatty acid synthesis) for preventive intervention in breast cancer.

  T. P Cappola , M Li , J He , B Ky , J Gilmore , L Qu , B Keating , M Reilly , C. E Kim , J Glessner , E Frackelton , H Hakonarson , F Syed , A Hindes , S. J Matkovich , S Cresci and G. W. Dorn

Background— Heart failure results from abnormalities in multiple biological processes that contribute to cardiac dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that inherited variation in genes of known importance to cardiovascular biology would thus contribute to heart failure risk.

Methods and Results— We used the ITMAT/Broad/CARe cardiovascular single-nucleotide polymorphism array to screen referral populations of patients with advanced heart failure for variants in 2000 genes of predicted importance to cardiovascular biology. Our design was a 2-stage case-control study. In stage 1, genotypes in Caucasian patients with heart failure (n=1590; ejection fraction, 32±16%) were compared with those in unaffected controls (n=577; ejection fraction, 67±8%) who were recruited from the same referral centers. Associations were tested for independent replication in stage 2 (308 cases and 2314 controls). Two intronic single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed replicated associations with all-cause heart failure as follows: rs1739843 in HSPB7 (combined P=3.09x10–6) and rs6787362 in FRMD4B (P=6.09x10–6). For both single-nucleotide polymorphisms, the minor allele was protective. In subgroup analyses, rs1739843 associated with both ischemic and nonischemic heart failure, whereas rs6787362 associated principally with ischemic heart failure. Linkage disequilibrium surrounding rs1739843 suggested that the causal variant resides in a region containing HSPB7 and a neighboring gene, CLCNKA, whereas the causal variant near rs6787362 is probably within FRMD4B. Allele frequencies for these single-nucleotide polymorphisms were substantially different in African Americans (635 cases and 714 controls) and showed no association with heart failure in this population.

Conclusions— Our findings identify regions containing HSPB7 and FRMD4B as novel susceptibility loci for advanced heart failure. More broadly, in an era of genome-wide association studies, we demonstrate how knowledge of candidate genes can be leveraged as a complementary strategy to discern the genetics of complex disorders.

  A Moran , D Gu , D Zhao , P Coxson , Y. C Wang , C. S Chen , J Liu , J Cheng , K Bibbins Domingo , Y. M Shen , J He and L. Goldman

Background— The relative effects of individual and combined risk factor trends on future cardiovascular disease in China have not been quantified in detail.

Methods and Results— Future risk factor trends in China were projected based on prior trends. Cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease and stroke) in adults ages 35 to 84 years was projected from 2010 to 2030 using the Coronary Heart Disease Policy Model–China, a Markov computer simulation model. With risk factor levels held constant, projected annual cardiovascular events increased by >50% between 2010 and 2030 based on population aging and growth alone. Projected trends in blood pressure, total cholesterol, diabetes (increases), and active smoking (decline) would increase annual cardiovascular disease events by an additional 23%, an increase of approximately 21.3 million cardiovascular events and 7.7 million cardiovascular deaths over 2010 to 2030. Aggressively reducing active smoking in Chinese men to 20% prevalence in 2020 and 10% prevalence in 2030 or reducing mean systolic blood pressure by 3.8 mm Hg in men and women would counteract adverse trends in other risk factors by preventing cardiovascular events and 2.9 to 5.7 million total deaths over 2 decades.

Conclusions— Aging and population growth will increase cardiovascular disease by more than a half over the coming 20 years, and projected unfavorable trends in blood pressure, total cholesterol, diabetes, and body mass index may accelerate the epidemic. National policy aimed at controlling blood pressure, smoking, and other risk factors would counteract the expected future cardiovascular disease epidemic in China.

  J. P Lash , A. S Go , L. J Appel , J He , A Ojo , M Rahman , R. R Townsend , D Xie , D Cifelli , J Cohan , J. C Fink , M. J Fischer , C Gadegbeku , L. L Hamm , J. W Kusek , J. R Landis , A Narva , N Robinson , V Teal , H. I Feldman and the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study Group

Background and objectives: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study was established to examine risk factors for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with CKD. We examined baseline demographic and clinical characteristics.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Seven clinical centers recruited adults who were aged 21 to 74 yr and had CKD using age-based estimated GFR (eGFR) inclusion criteria. At baseline, blood and urine specimens were collected and information regarding health behaviors, diet, quality of life, and functional status was obtained. GFR was measured using radiolabeled iothalamate in one third of participants.

Results: A total of 3612 participants were enrolled with mean age ± SD of 58.2 ± 11.0 yr; 46% were women, and 47% had diabetes. Overall, 45% were non-Hispanic white, 46% were non-Hispanic black, and 5% were Hispanic. Eighty-six percent reported hypertension, 22% coronary disease, and 10% heart failure. Mean body mass index was 32.1 ± 7.9 kg/m2, and 47% had a BP >130/80 mmHg. Mean eGFR was 43.4 ± 13.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and median (interquartile range) protein excretion was 0.17 g/24 h (0.07 to 0.81 g/24 h). Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower socioeconomic and educational level, cigarette smoking, self-reported CVD, peripheral arterial disease, and elevated BP.

Conclusions: Lower level of eGFR was associated with a greater burden of CVD as well as lower socioeconomic and educational status. Long-term follow-up of participants will provide critical insights into the epidemiology of CKD and its relationship to adverse outcomes.

  X Li , J He , W Hu and Z. Yin

Ghrelin, a multifunctional hormone, including potent GH stimulation activity, has been suggested to be important during embryonic development. Expression of ghrelin has been confirmed in the zebrafish pancreas during embryonic stages. Interfering with ghrelin function using two specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotides causes defects during zebrafish embryonic development. In ghrelin morphants the expression of GH was abolished in zebrafish somatotropes, whereas the expression patterns of the other key molecules involved in hypothalamic-pituitary development and distinct pituitary hormones genes remain largely intact at the appropriate time during zebrafish adenohypophysis development. Effective rescue of the ghrelin morphants with exogenous ghrelin mRNA showed that the correct gene had been targeted. Moreover, by analyzing the efficiencies of the ghrelin morphants rescue experiments with various forms of exogenous mutant ghrelin mRNAs, we also demonstrated the essentiality of the form acyl-ghrelin on GH stimulation during zebrafish adenohypophysis development. Our in vivo experiments, for the first time, also provided evidence of the existence of functional obestatin in the C-terminal part of zebrafish proghrelin peptides. Our research here has demonstrated that zebrafish is a unique model for functional studies of endogenous ghrelin, especially during embryonic development.

  C Xu , J He , H Jiang , L Zu , W Zhai , S Pu and G. Xu

Hypercortisolemia and glucocorticoid treatment cause elevated level of circulating free fatty acids (FFAs). The basis of this phenomenon has long been linked to the effect of glucocorticoids permitting and enhancing the adipose lipolysis response to various hormones. In this study, we demonstrate that glucocorticoids directly stimulate lipolysis in rat primary adipocytes in a dose- and time-responsive manner; this lipolytic action was attenuated by treatment with the glucocorticoid antagonist RU486. Dexamethasone down-regulates mRNA and protein levels of cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3B, thereby elevating cellular cAMP production and activating protein kinase A (PKA). On inhibition of PKA but not other kinases, the lipolysis response ceases. Furthermore, dexamethasone induces phosphorylation and down-regulation of perilipin, a lipid droplet-associating protein that modulates lipolysis; this effect is restored by RU486 or PKA inhibitor H89. Dexamethasone up-regulates mRNA and protein levels of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase; these effects, parallel to increased lipolysis, are attenuated by RU486 or actinomycin D. Phosphorylation at Ser-563 and Ser-660 residues of HSL and activity of cellular lipases are elevated on dexamethasone stimulation but abrogated by the coaddition of H89. However, dexamethasone does not induce HSL translocation to the lipid droplet surface in differentiated adipocytes. We show that elevated FFA concentration in plasma is associated with increased lipase activity and lipolysis in vivo in adipose tissues of dexamethasone-treated rats. Therefore, the lipolytic action of glucocorticoids liberates FFA efflux from adipocytes to the bloodstream, which could be a cellular basis of systemic FFA elevation in response to glucocorticoid challenge.

  J He , Q Cheng and W. Xie

Steroid hormones are essential in normal physiology whereas disruptions in hormonal homeostasis represent an important etiological factor for many human diseases. Steroid hormones exert most of their functions through the binding and activation of nuclear hormone receptors (NRs or NHRs), a superfamily of DNA-binding and often ligand-dependent transcription factors. In recent years, accumulating evidence has suggested that NRs can also regulate the biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones. This review will focus on the recent progress in our understanding of the regulatory role of NRs in hormonal homeostasis and the implications of this regulation in physiology and diseases.

  J He and M. W. Deem

Influenza has been circulating in the human population and has caused three pandemics in the last century (1918 H1N1, 1957 H2N2 and 1968 H3N2). The 2009 A(H1N1) was classified by World Health Organization as the fourth pandemic. Influenza has a high evolution rate, which makes vaccine design challenging. We here consider an approach for early detection of new dominant strains. By clustering the 2009 A(H1N1) sequence data, we found two main clusters. We then define a metric to detect the emergence of dominant strains. We show on historical H3N2 data that this method is able to identify a cluster around an incipient dominant strain before it becomes dominant. For example, for H3N2 as of 30 March 2009, the method detects the cluster for the new A/British Columbia/RV1222/2009 strain. This strain detection tool would appear to be useful for annual influenza vaccine selection.

  A la Sala , J He , L Laricchia Robbio , S Gorini , A Iwasaki , M Braun , G. S Yap , A Sher , K Ozato and B. Kelsall

Prior studies have demonstrated that cholera toxin (CT) and other cAMP-inducing factors inhibit interleukin (IL)-12 production from monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs). We show that CT inhibits Th1 responses in vivo in mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii. This correlated with low serum IL-12 levels and a selective reduction in the numbers of CD8+ conventional DCs (cDCs) in lymphoid organs. CT inhibited the function of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF) 8, a transcription factor known to positively regulate IL-12p35 and p40 gene expression, and the differentiation of CD8+ and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis showed that exposure to CT, forskolin, or dibutyryl (db) cAMP blocked LPS and IFN-–induced IRF8 binding to chromatin. Moreover, CT and dbcAMP inhibited the binding of IRF8 to the IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE)–like element in the mouse IL-12p40 promoter, likely by blocking the formation of ISRE-binding IRF1–IRF8 heterocomplexes. Furthermore, CT inhibited the differentiation of pDCs from fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand–treated bone marrow cells in vitro. Therefore, because IRF8 is essential for IL-12 production and the differentiation of CD8+ cDCs and pDCs, these data suggest that CT and other Gs-protein agonists can affect IL-12 production and DC differentiation via a common mechanism involving IRF8.

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