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Articles by J Han
Total Records ( 7 ) for J Han
  H. Y Liu , T Hong , G. B Wen , J Han , D Zuo , Z Liu and W. Cao
 

A majority of subjects with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia can maintain their blood glucose levels normal for the whole life presumably through protein kinase B (Akt)-dependent insulin signaling. In this study, we found that the basal Akt phosphorylation level was increased in liver and gastrocnemius of mice under the high-fat diet (HFD). Levels of mitochondrial DNA and expression of some mitochondrion-associated genes were decreased by the HFD primarily in liver. Triglyceride content was increased in both liver and gastrocnemius by the HFD. Oxidative stress was induced by the HFD in both liver and gastrocnemius. Insulin sensitivity was decreased by the HFD. All of these changes were largely or completely reversed by treatment of animals with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY-294002 during the time when animals usually do not eat. Consequently, the overall insulin sensitivity was increased by treatment with LY-294002. Together, our results indicate that increased basal Akt-dependent insulin signaling suppresses mitochondrial production, increases ectopic fat accumulation, induces oxidative stress, and desensitizes insulin signaling in subjects with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia.

  E Barasch , J. S Gottdiener , G Aurigemma , D. W Kitzman , J Han , W. J Kop and R. P. Tracy
 

Background— Myocardial fibrosis reflects excess collagen deposition in the extracellular left ventricular matrix, which has been associated with heart failure (HF). No studies have addressed the relation between fibrosis biomarkers and HF in the elderly.

Methods and Results— Serum fibrosis markers were measured in 880 participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study (mean age 77±6 years, 48% women). Participants with systolic HF (n=131, left ventricular ejection fraction <55%) and those with diastolic HF (n=179, left ventricular ejection fraction ≥55%) were compared with controls (280 with cardiovascular risk factors, and 279 healthy individuals) using a nested case-control design. Fibrosis markers included carboxyl-terminal peptide of procollagen type I, carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I, and amino-terminal peptide of procollagen type III. Echocardiography was used to document systolic and diastolic function parameters. Analysis of variance and logistic regression analysis (per tertile odds ratios [OR]), adjusted by age, gender, race, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease, baseline serum glucose, serum cystatin C, serum creatinine, C-reactive protein, any angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, spironolactone or any diuretic, NT-proBNP, and total bone mineral density were performed. Systolic HF was associated with significantly elevated carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.2 to 5.7) and amino-terminal peptide of procollagen type III (OR=3.3; 95% CI=1.6 to 5.8), when adjusting for covariates. Associations of diastolic HF were significant for carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (OR=3.9; 95% CI=1.9 to 8.3) and amino-terminal peptide of procollagen type III (OR=2.7; 95% CI=1.4 to 5.4). HF was not associated with elevated carboxyl-terminal peptide of procollagen type I (P>0.10), and fibrosis markers did not significantly differ between HF with diastolic versus those with systolic dysfunction (P>0.10) whereas NT-proBNP mean values were higher in systolic heart failure than in diastolic heart failure (P<0.0001).

Conclusions— Fibrosis markers are significantly elevated in elderly individuals with diastolic or systolic HF. These associations remained significant when adjusting for covariates relevant to the aging process.

  J Han , Q Li , L McCullough , C Kettelkamp , T Formosa and Z. Zhang
 

FACT plays important roles in both gene transcription and DNA replication. However, how this protein complex is targeted to these two distinct cellular processes remains largely unknown. Here we show that ubiquitylation of the Spt16 subunit of FACT by Rtt101, the cullin subunit of an E3 ubiquitin ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, links FACT to DNA replication. We find Rtt101 interacts with and ubiquitylates Spt16 in vitro and in vivo. Deletion of RTT101 leads to reduced association of both FACT and the replicative helicase MCM with replication origins. Loss of Rtt101 also reduces binding of FACT to MCM, but not the association of FACT with Leo1 and Spt5, two proteins involved in transcription. Origin function is compromised in cells lacking Rtt101 or with an Spt16 mutation. These findings identify Spt16 as an Rtt101 substrate, and suggest that Spt16 ubiquitylation is important for FACT to function during DNA replication.

  Z Huang , M Chen , K Li , X Dong , J Han and Q. Zhang
 

Cryo-electron tomography was employed to reconstruct the structure of Chlamydia trachomatis. Results revealed that the features of the structures, especially those of the membranes, were preserved much better than those by conventional ultrathin section methods. This method also enabled us to determine that the thickness of the outer membrane of the elementary bodies is nearly twice of that of the reticulate bodies. Our observations give a clue to the mechanism of outer membrane changes.

  Y Ling , Y Ma , W Guan , Y Cheng , Y Wang , J Han , D Jin , L Mang and H. Mahmut
 

Y chromosome acts as a single nonrecombining unit that is male specific and in effect haploid, thus ensuring the preservation of mutational events as a single haplotype via male lines. In this study, 6 Y chromosome–specific microsatellites (SSR) were tested for the patrilineal genetic variations of 573 male samples from Chinese domestic horse (30 breeds), Przewalski's horse, and donkey. All the 6 loci appeared as a haplotype block in Przewalski's horse and the domestic donkey. There were notable differences, however, at Y chromosome markers between horse and donkey. There were 2 haplotypes of Eca.YA16 in the domestic horse breeds, Haplotype A (Allele A: 156 bp) and Haplotype B (Allele B: 152 bp). Allele A was the common allele among 30 horse breeds, and Allele B was found in 11 horse breeds. This is the first description of a Y chromosome variant for horses. The 2 haplotypes of Y chromosome discovered in the domestic horse breeds in China could be helpful in unveiling their intricate genetic genealogy.

  M Liao , X Chen , J Han , S Yang , T Peng and H. Li
 

Huntingtin-associated protein-1 (HAP1) was initially identified as a binding partner of huntingtin, the Huntington's disease protein. Based on its preferred distribution among neurons and endocrine cells, HAP1 has been suggested to play roles in vesicular transportation in neurons and hormonal secretion of endocrine cells. Given that HAP1 is selectively expressed in the islets of rat pancreas, in this study, we analyzed the expression pattern of HAP1 in the islets. In rats injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin, which can selectively destroy β-cells of the pancreatic islets, the number of HAP1 immunoreactive cells was dramatically decreased and was accompanied by a parallel decrease in the number of insulin-immunoreactive cells. Immunofluorescent double staining of pancreas sections showed that, in rat islets, HAP1 is selectively expressed in the insulin-immunoreactive β-cells but not in the glucagon-immunoreactive -cells and somatostatin immunoreactive -cells. In isolated rat pancreatic islets, ~80% of cells expressed both HAP1 and insulin. Expression of HAP1 in the INS-1 rat insulinoma cell line was also demonstrated by immunofluorescent staining. Western blotting further revealed that HAP1 in both the isolated rat pancreatic islets and the INS-1 cells also has two isoforms, HAP1A and HAP1B, which are the same as those in the hypothalamus. These results demonstrated that HAP1 is selectively expressed in β-cells of rat pancreatic islets, suggesting the involvement of HAP1 in the regulation of cellular trafficking and secretion of insulin. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:255–263, 2010)

  S Zheng , W Li , M Xu , X Bai , Z Zhou , J Han , J. Y. J Shyy and X. Wang
 

Ischemia induces angiogenesis as a compensatory response. Although ischemia is known to causes synthesis and release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), it is not clear whether CGRP regulates angiogenesis under ischemia and how does it function. Thus we investigated the role of CGRP in angiogenesis and the involved mechanisms. We found that CGRP level was increased in the rat hindlimb ischemic tissue. The expression of exogenous CGRP by adenovirus vectors enhanced blood flow recovery and increased capillary density in ischemic hindlimbs. In vitro, CGRP promoted human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation and migration. Further more, CGRP activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) both in vivo and in vitro, and pharmacological inhibition of CGRP and cAMP attenuated the CGRP-activated AMPK in vitro. CGRP also induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in HUVECs at Ser1177 and Ser633 in a time-dependent manner, and such effects were abolished by AMPK inhibitor Compound C. As well, Compound C blocked CGRP-enhanced HUVEC tube formation and migration. These findings indicate that CGRP promotes angiogenesis by activating the AMPK-eNOS pathway in endothelial cells.

 
 
 
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