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Articles by J Frank
Total Records ( 3 ) for J Frank
  F Sierles , A Brodkey , L Cleary , F. A McCurdy , M Mintz , J Frank , D. J Lynn , J Chao , B Morgenstern , W Shore and J. Woodard

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to ascertain the details of medical school policies about relationships between drug companies and medical students as well as student affairs deans’ attitudes about these interactions. METHODS: In 2005, the authors surveyed deans and student affairs deans at all U.S. medical schools and asked whether their schools had a policy about relationships between drug companies and medical students. They asked deans at schools with policies to summarize them, queried student affairs deans regarding their attitudes about gifts, and compared their attitudes with those of students who were studied previously. RESULTS: Independently of each other, 114 out of 126 deans (90.5%) and 114 out of 126 student affairs deans (90.5%) responded (identical numbers are not misprints). Ten schools had a policy regarding relationships between medical students and drug company representatives. Student affairs deans were much more likely than students to perceive that gifts were inappropriate. CONCLUSION: These 2005 policies show trends meriting review by current medical schools in considering how to comply with the 2008 Association of American Medical Colleges recommendations about relationships between drug companies and medical students or physicians.

  J Treutlein , S Cichon , M Ridinger , N Wodarz , M Soyka , P Zill , W Maier , R Moessner , W Gaebel , N Dahmen , C Fehr , N Scherbaum , M Steffens , K. U Ludwig , J Frank , H. E Wichmann , S Schreiber , N Dragano , W. H Sommer , F Leonardi Essmann , A Lourdusamy , P Gebicke Haerter , T. F Wienker , P. F Sullivan , M. M Nothen , F Kiefer , R Spanagel , K Mann and M. Rietschel

Context  Alcohol dependence is a serious and common public health problem. It is well established that genetic factors play a major role in the development of this disorder. Identification of genes that contribute to alcohol dependence will improve our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this disorder.

Objective  To identify susceptibility genes for alcohol dependence through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a follow-up study in a population of German male inpatients with an early age at onset.

Design  The GWAS tested 524 396 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). All SNPs with P < 10–4 were subjected to the follow-up study. In addition, nominally significant SNPs from genes that had also shown expression changes in rat brains after long-term alcohol consumption were selected for the follow-up step.

Setting  Five university hospitals in southern and central Germany.

Participants  The GWAS included 487 male inpatients with alcohol dependence as defined by the DSM-IV and an age at onset younger than 28 years and 1358 population-based control individuals. The follow-up study included 1024 male inpatients and 996 age-matched male controls. All the participants were of German descent.

Main Outcome Measures  Significant association findings in the GWAS and follow-up study with the same alleles.

Results  The GWAS produced 121 SNPs with nominal P < 10–4. These, together with 19 additional SNPs from homologues of rat genes showing differential expression, were genotyped in the follow-up sample. Fifteen SNPs showed significant association with the same allele as in the GWAS. In the combined analysis, 2 closely linked intergenic SNPs met genome-wide significance (rs7590720, P = 9.72 x 10–9; rs1344694, P = 1.69 x 10–8). They are located on chromosome region 2q35, which has been implicated in linkage studies for alcohol phenotypes. Nine SNPs were located in genes, including the CDH13 and ADH1C genes, that have been reported to be associated with alcohol dependence.

Conclusions  This is the first GWAS and follow-up study to identify a genome-wide significant association in alcohol dependence. Further independent studies are required to confirm these findings.

  M Gillen , M. G Cisternas , I. H Yen , L Swig , R Rugulies , J Frank and P. D. Blanc

Background Hospital workers are at high risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs), but outcomes following such injuries have not been well studied longitudinally.

Aims To ascertain functional recovery in hospital workers following incident WRMSDs and identify predictors of functional status.

Methods Cases (incident WRMSD) and matched referents from two hospitals were studied at baseline and at 2 year follow-up for health status [SF-12 physical component summary (PCS)], lost workdays, self-rated work effectiveness and work status change (job change or work cessation). Predictors included WRMSD and baseline demographics, socio-economic status (SES), job-related strain and effort–reward imbalance. Logistic regression analysis tested longitudinal predictors of adverse functional status.

Results The WRMSD-associated risk of poor (lowest quartile) PCS was attenuated from a baseline odds ratio (OR) of 5.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5–7.5] to a follow-up OR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.0–2.3) and was reduced further in multivariate modelling (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 0.9–2.2). At follow-up, WRMSD status did not predict significantly increased likelihood of lost workdays, decreased effectiveness or work status change. In multivariate modelling, lowest quintile SES predicted poor PCS (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.0–4.0) and work status change (OR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.1–5.8). High combined baseline job strain/effort–reward imbalance predicted poor PCS (OR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.1–2.7) and reduced work effectiveness (OR = 2.6; 95% CI 1.6–4.2) at follow-up.

Conclusions Baseline functional deficits associated with incident WRMSDs were largely resolved by 2 year follow-up. Nonetheless, lower SES and higher combined job strain/effort–reward imbalance predicted adverse outcomes, controlling for WRMSDs.

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