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Articles by J Coresh
Total Records ( 5 ) for J Coresh
  L Wagenknecht , B Wasserman , L Chambless , J Coresh , A Folsom , T Mosley , C Ballantyne , R Sharrett and E. Boerwinkle
 

Background— The composition of atherosclerotic plaque affects the likelihood of an atherothrombotic event, but prospective studies relating risk factors to carotid wall and plaque characteristics measured by MRI are lacking. We hypothesized that traditional risk factors are predictors of carotid wall and plaque characteristics measured 2 decades later.

Methods and Results— A high-resolution contrast-enhanced MRI examination of the carotid artery was performed in 1769 participants. Measures of carotid wall volume and maximum thickness; lipid core presence, volume and maximum area; and fibrous cap thickness were performed centrally. The sample was, on average, 70 years of age, 57% female, 81% white, and 19% black. Greater age, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, male sex, white race, diabetes, hypertension, and smoking as measured at baseline were all significant predictors of increased wall volume and maximum wall thickness 18 years later. An analysis of lipid core was restricted to the 1180 participants with maximum wall thickness ≥1.5 mm. Lipid core was observed in 569 individuals (weighted percentage, 42%). Baseline age and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were predictors of presence of lipid core 18 years later; however, these relationships were attenuated after adjustment for wall thickness. Concurrently measured low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was associated with greater lipid core volume, independent of wall thickness. Concurrently measured glucose and body mass index were inversely associated fibrous cap thickness.

Conclusions— Traditional atherosclerosis risk factors are related to increased wall volume and wall thickness 2 decades later, but they do not discriminate characteristics of plaque composition (core and cap) independent of wall size.

  L. C Plantinga , N. E Fink , J Coresh , S. M Sozio , R. S Parekh , M. L Melamed , N. R Powe and B. G. Jaar
 

Background and objectives: Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is prevalent among dialysis patients, and many dialysis patients undergo PVD-related procedures. We aimed to examine the risk factors for and prognosis after such procedures in the dialysis setting.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: In a national prospective cohort study of 1041 incident dialysis patients, we examined the factors that are associated with PVD procedures (lower extremity amputations and bypasses) after the start of dialysis. Adjusted risk for PVD procedures of various factors was estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Incidence rates of subsequent cardiovascular events, infectious hospitalizations, PVD- and cardiovascular disease–related mortality, and all-cause mortality were compared for those with and without a PVD procedure.

Results: Overall, 217 (21%) patients underwent a PVD procedure after the start of dialysis. For those without diabetes, only PVD history (relative hazard [RH] 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 6.6) and increased fibrinogen (RH 1.2; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.5) predicted PVD procedures. For those with diabetes, increased serum phosphate (RH 1.2; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.4), along with decreased albumin, increased C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, and lower SBP, was associated with risk for PVD procedures. Of those who had a procedure compared with those who did not, 68 versus 30% experienced a subsequent cardiovascular event, 85 versus 66% an infectious hospitalization, 11 versus 2% a PVD-related death, and 81 versus 59% all-cause death (mean follow-up 3.0 yr).

Conclusions: Prognosis after PVD procedures is poor, and providers should be aware that risk factors for PVD procedures may differ by diabetes status.

  R Saran , E Hedgeman , L Plantinga , N. R Burrows , B. W Gillespie , E. W Young , J Coresh , M Pavkov , D Williams , N. R Powe and for the CKD Surveillance Team
 

Despite the recognized importance of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the United States currently lacks a comprehensive, systematic surveillance program that captures and tracks all aspects of CKD in the population. As part of its CKD Initiative, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded two teams to jointly initiate the development of a CKD surveillance system. Here, we describe the process and methods used to establish this national CDC CKD Surveillance System. The major CKD components covered include burden (incidence and prevalence), risk factors, awareness, health consequences, processes and quality of care, and health system capacity issues. Goals include regular reporting of the data collected, plus development of a dynamic project web site and periodic issuance of a CKD fact sheet. We anticipate that this system will provide an important foundation for widespread efforts toward primary prevention, earlier detection, and implementation of optimal disease management strategies, with resultant increased awareness of CKD, decreased rates of CKD progression, lowered mortality, and reduced resource utilization. Final success will be measured by usage, impact, and endorsement.

  L. C Plantinga , D. C Crews , J Coresh , E. R Miller , R Saran , J Yee , E Hedgeman , M Pavkov , M. S Eberhardt , D. E Williams , N. R Powe and for the CDC CKD Surveillance Team
 

Background and objectives: Prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with diagnosed diabetes is known to be high, but little is known about the prevalence of CKD in those with undiagnosed diabetes or prediabetes. We aimed to estimate and compare the community prevalence of CKD among people with diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes, or no diabetes.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: The 1999 through 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is a representative survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized US population. Participants who were aged ≥20 years; responded to the diabetes questionnaire; and had fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum creatinine, and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio measurements were included (N = 8188). Diabetes status was defined as follows: Diagnosed diabetes, self-reported provider diagnosis (n = 826); undiagnosed diabetes, FPG ≥126 mg/dl without self-reported diagnosis (n = 299); prediabetes, FPG ≥100 and <126 mg/dl (n = 2272); and no diabetes, FPG <100 mg/dl (n = 4791). Prevalence of CKD was defined by estimated GFR 15 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or albumin-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g; adjustment was performed with multivariable logistic regression.

Results: Fully 39.6% of people with diagnosed and 41.7% with undiagnosed diabetes had CKD; 17.7% with prediabetes and 10.6% without diabetes had CKD. Age-, gender-, and race/ethnicity-adjusted prevalence of CKD was 32.9, 24.2, 17.1, and 11.8%, for diagnosed, undiagnosed, pre-, and no diabetes, respectively. Among those with CKD, 39.1% had undiagnosed or prediabetes.

Conclusions: CKD prevalence is high among people with undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes. These individuals might benefit from interventions aimed at preventing development and/or progression of both CKD and diabetes.

 
 
 
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