Asian Science Citation Index is committed to provide an authoritative, trusted and significant information by the coverage of the most important and influential journals to meet the needs of the global scientific community.  
ASCI Database
308-Lasani Town,
Sargodha Road,
Faisalabad, Pakistan
Fax: +92-41-8815544
Contact Via Web
Suggest a Journal
 
Articles by J Cavanagh
Total Records ( 2 ) for J Cavanagh
  J Stone , A Carson , R Duncan , R Coleman , R Roberts , C Warlow , C Hibberd , G Murray , R Cull , A Pelosi , J Cavanagh , K Matthews , R Goldbeck , R Smyth , J Walker , A.D MacMahon and M. Sharpe
 

It has been previously reported that a substantial proportion of newly referred neurology out-patients have symptoms that are considered by the assessing neurologist as unexplained by ‘organic disease’. There has however been much controversy about how often such patients subsequently develop a disease diagnosis that, with hindsight, would have explained the symptoms. We aimed to determine in a large sample of new neurology out-patients: (i) what proportion are assessed as having symptoms unexplained by disease and the diagnoses given to them; and (ii) how often a neurological disorder emerged which, with hindsight, explained the original symptoms. We carried out a prospective cohort study of patients referred from primary care to National Health Service neurology clinics in Scotland, UK. Measures were: (i) the proportion of patients with symptoms rated by the assessing neurologist as ‘not at all’ or only ‘somewhat explained’ by ‘organic disease’ and the neurological diagnoses recorded at initial assessment; and (ii) the frequency of unexpected new diagnoses made over the following 18 months (according to the primary-care physician). One thousand four hundred and forty-four patients (30% of all new patients) were rated as having symptoms ‘not at all’ or only ‘somewhat explained’ by ‘organic disease’. The most common categories of diagnosis were: (i) organic neurological disease but with symptoms unexplained by it (26%); (ii) headache disorders (26%); and (iii) conversion symptoms (motor, sensory or non-epileptic attacks) (18%). At follow-up only 4 out of 1030 patients (0.4%) had acquired an organic disease diagnosis that was unexpected at initial assessment and plausibly the cause of the patients’ original symptoms. Eight patients had died at follow-up; five of whom had initial diagnoses of non-epileptic attacks. Seven other types of diagnostic change with very different implications to a ‘missed diagnosis’ were found and a new classification of diagnostic revision is presented. One-third of new neurology out-patients are assessed as having symptoms ‘unexplained by organic disease’. A new diagnosis, which with hindsight explained the original symptoms, rarely became apparent to the patient's primary care doctor in the 18 months following the initial hospital consultation.

  D Arnone , J Cavanagh , D Gerber , S. M Lawrie , K. P Ebmeier and A. M. McIntosh
 

Background

Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have identified structural abnormalities in association with bipolar disorder. The literature is, however, heterogeneous and there is remaining uncertainty about which brain areas are pivotal to the pathogenesis of the condition.

Aims

To identify, appraise and summarise volumetric MRI studies of brain regions comparing bipolar disorder with an unrelated control group and individuals with schizophrenia.

Method

A systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis was carried out to identify key areas of structural abnormality in bipolar disorder and whether the pattern of affected areas separated bipolar disorder from schizophrenia. Significant heterogeneity was explored using meta-regression.

Results

Participants with bipolar disorder are characterised by whole brain and prefrontal lobe volume reductions, and also by increases in the volume of the globus pallidus and lateral ventricles. In comparison with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder is associated with smaller lateral ventricular volume and enlarged amygdala volume. Heterogeneity was widespread and could be partly explained by clinical variables and year of publication, but generally not by differences in image acquisition.

Conclusions

There appear to be robust changes in brain volume in bipolar disorder compared with healthy volunteers, although most changes do not seem to be diagnostically specific. Age and duration of illness appear to be key issues in determining the magnitude of observed effect sizes.

 
 
 
Copyright   |   Desclaimer   |    Privacy Policy   |   Browsers   |   Accessibility