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Articles by J Armitage
Total Records ( 12 ) for J Armitage
  S Michaels , G. A Eppel , S. L Burke , G. A Head , J Armitage , J. F Carroll , S. C Malpas and R. G. Evans
  We tested whether mild adiposity alters responsiveness of the kidney to activation of the renal sympathetic nerves. After rabbits were fed a high-fat or control diet for 9 wk, responses to reflex activation of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) with hypoxia and electrical stimulation of the renal nerves (RNS) were examined under pentobarbital anesthesia. Fat pad mass and body weight were, respectively, 74% and 6% greater in fat-fed rabbits than controls. RNS produced frequency-dependent reductions in renal blood flow, cortical and medullary perfusion, glomerular filtration rate, urine flow, and sodium excretion and increased renal plasma renin activity (PRA) overflow. Responses of sodium excretion and medullary perfusion were significantly enhanced by fat feeding. For example, 1 Hz RNS reduced sodium excretion by 79 ± 4% in fat-fed rabbits and 46 ± 13% in controls. RNS (2 Hz) reduced medullary perfusion by 38 ± 11% in fat-fed rabbits and 9 ± 4% in controls. Hypoxia doubled RSNA, increased renal PRA overflow and medullary perfusion, and reduced urine flow and sodium excretion, without significantly altering mean arterial pressure (MAP) or cortical perfusion. These effects were indistinguishable in fat-fed and control rabbits. Neither MAP nor PRA were significantly greater in conscious fat-fed than control rabbits. These observations suggest that mild excess adiposity can augment the antinatriuretic response to renal nerve activation by RNS, possibly through altered neural control of medullary perfusion. Thus, sodium retention in obesity might be driven not only by increased RSNA, but also by increased responsiveness of the kidney to RSNA.
  R Clarke , J Halsey , S Lewington , E Lonn , J Armitage , J. E Manson , K. H Bonaa , J. D Spence , O Nygard , R Jamison , J. M Gaziano , P Guarino , D Bennett , F Mir , R Peto , R Collins and for the B Vitamin Treatment Trialists' Collaboration

Elevated plasma homocysteine levels have been associated with higher risks of cardiovascular disease, but the effects on disease rates of supplementation with folic acid to lower plasma homocysteine levels are uncertain. Individual participant data were obtained for a meta-analysis of 8 large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of folic acid supplementation involving 37 485 individuals at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The analyses involved intention-to-treat comparisons of first events during the scheduled treatment period. There were 9326 major vascular events (3990 major coronary events, 1528 strokes, and 5068 revascularizations), 3010 cancers, and 5125 deaths. Folic acid allocation yielded an average 25% reduction in homocysteine levels. During a median follow-up of 5 years, folic acid allocation had no significant effects on vascular outcomes, with rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 1.01 (0.97-1.05) for major vascular events, 1.03 (0.97-1.10) for major coronary events, and 0.96 (0.87-1.06) for stroke. Likewise, there were no significant effects on vascular outcomes in any of the subgroups studied or on overall vascular mortality. There was no significant effect on the rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) for overall cancer incidence (1.05 [0.98-1.13]), cancer mortality (1.00 [0.85-1.18]) or all-cause mortality (1.02 [0.97-1.08]) during the whole scheduled treatment period or during the later years of it. Dietary supplementation with folic acid to lower homocysteine levels had no significant effects within 5 years on cardiovascular events or on overall cancer or mortality in the populations studied.

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