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Articles by J Alonso
Total Records ( 3 ) for J Alonso
  D Navarro , N Agra , A Pestana , J Alonso and J. M. Gonzalez Sancho
 

Tumours of the Ewing family, which comprise Ewing's sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumours, are highly aggressive and mostly affect children and adolescents. They are characterized by chromosomal translocations leading to the generation of fusion proteins between EWS (or very rarely FUS) and members of the E-twenty-six (ETS) family of transcription factors that are capable of transforming cells. EWS/FLI1, the most frequent fusion, is thought to cause transformation through activation or repression of specific target genes. We present evidence demonstrating that the Wnt inhibitor and β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-responsive gene DICKKOPF-1 (DKK-1) is a transcriptional target of EWS/FLI1, which can inhibit both basal and β-catenin-induced transactivation of the DKK-1 promoter. Moreover, our data indicate that EWS/FLI1 has a more general effect on β-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription since it can block transactivation of a consensus β-catenin/TCF reporter construct. Consistently, Ewing tumour cells expressing different EWS/ETS translocations cannot engage β-catenin/TCF-dependent transcription, whereas silencing of EWS/FLI1 restores β-catenin responsiveness in A673 and RD-ES Ewing tumour cells. Accordingly, gene set enrichment analysis shows that β-catenin/TCF target genes are significantly enriched among genes downregulated by EWS/FLI1 in the Ewing cell line A673. Mechanistically, the inhibitory effect of EWS/FLI1 can be overcome by a constitutively active TCF4 protein (TCF4-VP16). Moreover, EWS/FLI1 binds lymphoid enhancer factor 1, a TCF family member, and interferes with its binding to β-catenin, which could explain its negative effect on β-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription. Our results show that EWS/FLI1 inhibits both DKK-1 expression as well as β-catenin/TCF-dependent transcription, which could contribute to progression of tumours of the Ewing family.

  R Bruffaerts , K Demyttenaere , G Borges , J. M Haro , W. T Chiu , I Hwang , E. G Karam , R. C Kessler , N Sampson , J Alonso , L. H Andrade , M Angermeyer , C Benjet , E Bromet , G de Girolamo , R de Graaf , S Florescu , O Gureje , I Horiguchi , C Hu , V Kovess , D Levinson , J Posada Villa , R Sagar , K Scott , A Tsang , S. M Vassilev , D. R Williams and M. K. Nock
 

Background

Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide, but the precise effect of childhood adversities as risk factors for the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour (suicide ideation, plans and attempts) are not well understood.

Aims

To examine the associations between childhood adversities as risk factors for the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour across 21 countries worldwide.

Method

Respondents from nationally representative samples (n = 55 299) were interviewed regarding childhood adversities that occurred before the age of 18 years and lifetime suicidal behaviour.

Results

Childhood adversities were associated with an increased risk of suicide attempt and ideation in both bivariate and multivariate models (odds ratio range 1.2–5.7). The risk increased with the number of adversities experienced, but at a decreasing rate. Sexual and physical abuse were consistently the strongest risk factors for both the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour, especially during adolescence. Associations remained similar after additional adjustment for respondents’ lifetime mental disorder status.

Conclusions

Childhood adversities (especially intrusive or aggressive adversities) are powerful predictors of the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviours.

  R. C Kessler , K. A McLaughlin , J. G Green , M. J Gruber , N. A Sampson , A. M Zaslavsky , S Aguilar Gaxiola , A. O Alhamzawi , J Alonso , M Angermeyer , C Benjet , E Bromet , S Chatterji , G de Girolamo , K Demyttenaere , J Fayyad , S Florescu , G Gal , O Gureje , J. M Haro , C. y Hu , E. G Karam , N Kawakami , S Lee , J. P Lepine , J Ormel , J Posada Villa , R Sagar , A Tsang , T. B Ustun , S Vassilev , M. C Viana and D. R. Williams
 

Background

Although significant associations of childhood adversities with adult mental disorders are widely documented, most studies focus on single childhood adversities predicting single disorders.

Aims

To examine joint associations of 12 childhood adversities with first onset of 20 DSM–IV disorders in World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in 21 countries.

Method

Nationally or regionally representative surveys of 51 945 adults assessed childhood adversities and lifetime DSM–IV disorders with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).

Results

Childhood adversities were highly prevalent and interrelated. Childhood adversities associated with maladaptive family functioning (e.g. parental mental illness, child abuse, neglect) were the strongest predictors of disorders. Co-occurring childhood adversities associated with maladaptive family functioning had significant subadditive predictive associations and little specificity across disorders. Childhood adversities account for 29.8% of all disorders across countries.

Conclusions

Childhood adversities have strong associations with all classes of disorders at all life-course stages in all groups of WMH countries. Long-term associations imply the existence of as-yet undetermined mediators.

 
 
 
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