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Articles by J Alaghband Zadeh
Total Records ( 3 ) for J Alaghband Zadeh
  R. P Vincent , W Bernal , J Alaghband Zadeh and C. W le Roux
  Background

The short synacthen test (SST) is used to investigate patients with suspected hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis pathology. A rise of serum total cortisol (total cortisol) above 550 nmol/L is accepted as sufficient adrenal reserve. In total, 80% of cortisol is bound to cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) and 10% to albumin. In the acute phase responses CBG concentrations decrease and can influence the interpretation of SST. The free cortisol index (FCI) is a surrogate marker for free cortisol and is defined as total cortisol (nmol/L)/CBG (mg/L) with an FCI > 12 representing sufficient adrenal reserve. The aim of this study was to compare total cortisol and FCI in the interpretation of SST in patients with liver impairment.

Method

SST was done on 26 patients with liver impairment. Total cortisol was measured on Advia Centaur; serum CBG by radioimmunoassay and FCI calculated.

Results

Eleven (42%) patients had a total cortisol >550 nmol/L (range 555–2070) and FCI > 12 (12.0–68.9) suggesting sufficient cortisol reserve. Three patients (13%) had total cortisol <550 nmol/L (268–413) and FCI < 12 (3.5–11.6) consistent with cortisol deficiency. Twelve patients (46%) had a total cortisol <550 nmol/L (144–529), but an FCI > 12 (12.0–52.9). None of the patients had a total cortisol >550 nmol/L and FCI < 12.

Conclusion

When total cortisol alone is used to interpret SST in patients with liver impairment, 46% may have been classified as having adrenal insufficiency because of low CBG. FCI may be better for the evaluation of HPA axis insufficiency in patients with liver impairment.

  M. O Elnenaei , R Musto , J Alaghband Zadeh , C Moniz and C. W. Le Roux
  Background

The mechanisms causing bone turnover after food intake have not yet been elucidated. Several gut hormones are secreted in the postprandial phase, proportional to meal calorie content, and possibly one or more of these could influence bone turnover. The aim of this study was to investigate bone turnover in proportion to graded-calorie and fixed calcium containing meals.

Methods

A group of healthy volunteers were given six meals with calories varying from 250 to 3000 kcal on different occasions. All the meals contained 500 mg of calcium. C-telopeptide type I collagen (CTX) was measured before and 180 min after each meal.

Results

All meals significantly reduced CTX between 35.8 ± 5.6% and 44.8 ± 3.8%. No significant difference in CTX was however apparent for the different calorie containing meals. Observed differences suggest a trend to greater CTX suppression with lower protein and higher fat content of meals.

Conclusion

Changes in CTX are not proportional to calorie contents when the meals contain 500 mg of calcium. Further studies should now determine whether patients with increased bone resorption would benefit from multiple small meals to slow down the rate of bone loss.

  C Glicksman , D. J Pournaras , M Wright , R Roberts , D Mahon , R Welbourn , R Sherwood , J Alaghband Zadeh and C. W. le Roux
  Background

Bile acids can act as signalling molecules via various receptors including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR), and the cell surface G-protein-coupled receptor TGR5. The signalling has been implicated in the release of peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which improves glycaemic control and energy expenditure. We investigated whether morbidly obese subjects have altered postprandial bile acid responses in comparison to normal weight subjects.

Method

Blood samples were taken every 30 min from 0 to 180 min following a 400 kcal test meal. Samples were taken from 12 normal weight subjects with a body mass index (BMI) of 23.2 (2.8) kg/m2 (median [interquartile range (IQR)]) and seven obese patients with a BMI of 47.2 (7.2) kg/m2. Fractionated bile acids were measured on these samples using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

Results

The obese subjects showed a lower postprandial response in total bile acids compared with the normal weight subjects. An increase of 6.4 (5.0) and 2.6 (3.3) µmol/L (median [IQR]) in normal weight and obese subjects was observed, respectively (P = 0.02). The difference was predominantly due to the glycine-conjugated fraction (P = 0.03). There was no difference in the increase of the unconjugated or taurine-conjugated fractions.

Conclusions

The decreased postprandial bile acid response in obese subjects compared with normal weight subjects may partly explain the suboptimal GLP-1 and PYY responses and could affect appetite, glycaemic control and energy expenditure.

 
 
 
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