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Articles by Itemobong S. Ekaidem
Total Records ( 2 ) for Itemobong S. Ekaidem
  Itemobong S. Ekaidem , Itoro F. Usoh , Monday I. Akpanabiatu , Friday E. Uboh and Henry D. Akpan
  Phenytoin is known to induce microsomal enzymes including xanthine oxidase which catalyzes uric acid synthesis with superoxides as byproducts, thus contributing to the oxidative stress of phenytoin hepatotoxicity. To investigate the role of antioxidant vitamins in ameliorating phenytoin induced hepatic changes through possible actions on xanthine oxidase activities as measured by urate concentration. Growing albino rats of Wistar strain were randomly divided into 8 groups of 7 rats each. Group 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 were treated with phenytoin alone, phenytoin + folic acid, phenytoin + vitamin E, phenytoin + vitamin E + vitamin C, phenytoin + vitamin C, phenytoin + folic acid + vitamin E and phenytoin + vitamin E + vitamin C + folic acid respectively while animals in group 1 were given normal saline to serve as control. Serum concentrations of uric acid, albumin, total protein and the activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) and catalase were measured spectrophotometrically using appropriate commercial reagent kits. Result showed that administration of phenytoin alone caused significant (p<0.05) increase in serum levels of globulin, uric acid, AST and ALT activities while the levels of albumin and catalase were reduced significantly (p<0.05). Supplementation of phenytoin treatment with vitamins resulted in various degrees of protection. However, the elevated level of uric acid in serum was not significantly (p<0.05) affected by any of the vitamins used and there was no significant correlation between the activities of aminotransferases and uric acid concentration in the vitamin treated animals as was observed between aminotransferasdes and catalase. The findings in this study suggest that antioxidant vitamins were able to ameliorate phenytoin hepatotoxic effects by improving oxidant radicals removal in the animals but would not inhibit futher generation of the superoxides by xanthine oxidase activity and that xanthine oxdase may contribute significantly to the oxidative stress of phenytoin therapy.
  Henry D. Akpan , Itemobong S. Ekaidem , Itoro F. Usoh , Patrick E. Ebong and N.B. Isong
  Aim: The effects of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica on blood glucose concentration, serum α-amylase activity, body weight and pancreatic integrity of normal and alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats were investigated with the view to establishing possible mechanism of its antidiabetic action. Method: Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (1-4) of 8 rats each. Groups 1 and 2 rats were made diabetic by intraperitoneal administration of 150 mg kg-1 alloxan monohydrate while groups 3 and 4 were normal rats. Groups 2 and 4 were treated with 400 mg kg-1 of aqueous extract of Azadirachta-indica leaves. Groups 1 and 3 rats were treated with placebo (0.5 mL distilled water). Treatments were administered to the rats by oral intubations for a period of 14 days and animals were maintained on commercial rat chow and tap water ad libitum. Results: Results showed that treatment with the extract caused a significant (p<0.05) reduction in fasting blood glucose level in the extract treated Diabetic (DT) rats by 54% but not in the extract treated Normal (NT) rats. The serum α-amylase activity was also significantly lower (p<0.05) in the extract treated Diabetic rats (DT) when compared to the placebo treated Diabetic Control (DC). However, there was no significant difference (p<0.05) in the serum α-amylase activity of the Normal Treated (NT) rats when compared to the normal control. Histological examination of pancreas of diabetic control rats showed cellular degeneration which appeared to be reversed in the animals following extract treatment. Conclusion: We concluded that the extract might have antidiabetic properties, which may be associated with enhanced islets cells regeneration.
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