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Articles by Iqbal Munir
Total Records ( 4 ) for Iqbal Munir
  Nisar Ahmad , Iqbal Munir , Imtiaz A. Khan , Waqar Ali , Wisal Muhammad , Rakhshanda Habib , Raham Sher Khan and Zahoor A. Swati
  The most challenging hurdle facing Pakistan is the production of Brassica germplasm with a wider genetic base and using them properly in rapeseed genetic improvement. Genetic diversity was evaluated in 20 rapeseed lines (10 entries each of B. napus and B. campestris) using RAPD as molecular markers. Four Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA primers were used to estimate the genetic distances among the genotypes in all the possible combinations. The genetic diversity study revealed different levels of polymorphism for RAPD primers GLA07, GLB07, GLD18 and GLE07 that resulted in amplification of 3.2, 1.5, 3.0 and 3.5 scorable bands (loci) per genotype of Brassica napus and 2.5, 1.3, 2.6 and 3.7 scorable bands (loci) per genotype of B. campestris. Among Brassica napus genotypes, maximum genetic distance (79%) was observed between Torch+Maluka, Torch+Baro and Torch+Global, while, maximum genetic distance (91%) was observed between T-16 and P1-367601 genotypes of Brassica campestris. Individual genetic distance observed among the B. napus and B. campestris lines ranged from 21.50 to 59.41% and 53.75 to 60.09%, respectively. The dissimilarity coefficient matrix of these lines based on the data of four RAPD markers using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group of Arithmetic Means) method was also used to construct a dendrogram. The dendrogram analysis indicated that lines Torch and 366822 of B. napus, while 2163 and P1-392029 of B. campestris were genetically apart from other lines. These results provide valuable information for fingerprinting that can be used in a synergistic way to create wider genetic base and augment the breeding program of Brassica in Pakistan.
  Sikandar , Waqar Ali , Israr Khan and Iqbal Munir
  Tissue culture conditions for two varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Fakhr-e-Sarhad and Gandam-2002 were optimized using mature seeds as source of explant. Both of these varieties were tested for their callus production, callus proliferation and regeneration abilities. Different concentrations of 2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) were tested for callus induction. Both of these varieties showed maximum callus induction (46.87% for Fakhr-e-Sarhad and 62.5% for gandam-2002) on MS medium supplemented with 3.5 mg L-1 2,4-D. Excellent callus proliferation (87.5% for Fakhr-e-Sarhad and 95.31% for Gandam-2002) was obtained on MS medium containing 4 mg L-1 2,4-D, also callus proliferation (81.25% for Fakhr-e-Sarhad and 93.75% for Gandam-2002) was found on 3 mg L-1 BAP (Benzyl aminopurine). Both varieties were regenerated into whole plant on medium containing 1 mg L-1 IAA (Indol, 3-acetic acid) in combination with 2 mg L-1 BAP after a culture period of 3 weeks. The regeneration was 50 and 60% for Fakhr-e-Sarhad and Gandam-2002, respectively on medium containing 3 mg L-1 Kinetin. The Gandam-2002 produced an average of 4 plantlets per callus, while the Fakhr-e-Sarhad produced an average of 2 plantlets per callus on medium fortified with 1 mg L-1 IAA along with 2 mg L-1 BAP.
  Mian Afaq Ahmad , Iqbal Munir , Waqar Ali , Zahoor Ahmad Swati , Muhammad Saeed Khattak , Quahir Sohail and Imran Khan
  Estimation of genetic diversity of Brassica germplasm provides the basis for rapeseed/mustard genetic improvement. Studies were undertaken to estimate the genetic diversity of 30 lines of Brassica napus using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. A total of 30 B. napus genotypes of local and exotic origin were characterized using molecular markers. Four RAPD primers were used to estimate the genetic distances among the genotypes in all the possible combinations. The genetic diversity study revealed different levels of genetic polymorphism for RAPD primers GLA05, GLA07, GLA09 and GLA10, resulting in amplification of 5.7, 3.5, 3.1 and 5.4 scorable bands (loci) per genotype, respectively. Individual genetic distances observed among B. napus genotypes ranged from 6.5 to 51%. Bivariate data matrix was generated and genetic distances were calculated using Unweighted Pair Group of Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) procedure. The UPGMA cluster analyses revealed maximum genetic dissimilarity for 8966-1 and 8969-1 genotypes, closely followed by Ganyou-5, 89127-1, 89111-2 and Mlep-048. It is recommended that among the thirty B. napus genotypes, genetically distinct lines pointed out in the present study, should be used in future breeding programs for improvement of Brassica napus.
  Iqbal Munir , Zahoor Ahmed Swati , Muhammad Hamid Rashid , Ryoichi Yamaji , Hiroshi Inui and Yoshihisa Nakano
  We report here for the first time about the occurrence of a new NADP+-dependent ADH-I (EC1.1.1.2) in Euglena gracilis Z, which was separated from the already reported one (ADH-II) by hydrophobic chromatography on Butyl Toyo-pearl 650s and partially characterized. Both the enzymes were named as ADH-I and ADH-II based on their elution profile. ADH-1 seems to be constitutive with broader substrate specificity and reacted almost equally with all types of alcohols tested, while the inducible ADH-2 was active towards the middle and long-chain fatty alcohols and less active towards the primary short-chain and secondary alcohols. The ADH-1 was misophillic in nature with an optimal temperature of 55°C, while the other one was thermophilic. For ADH-1, the optimal pH was at the range of 8-9.0, while ADH-2 gave its maximal activity at pH range of 7.8 to 9.5 at 55°C. Accordingly, the two isozymes were proved to be different from each other in their properties.
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