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Articles by Intan Ahmad
Total Records ( 7 ) for Intan Ahmad
  Eko Kuswanto , Intan Ahmad and Rudi Dungani
  This review focuses on the study of subterranean termites as structural and building pests especially in Asia Tropical countries. Since wood is one of the oldest, most important and most versatile building materials and still widely utilized by home owners in the region. Subterranean termites have long been a serious pest of wooden construction and they are still causing an important problem in most of tropical and subtropical regions. This termite group is build shelter tubes and nest in the soil or on the sides of trees or building constructions and relies principally on soil for moisture. Subterranean termite damage on building and other wooden structure cause costs associated with the prevention and treatment of termite infestation. Termite control, thus, is a realistic problem not only for human life but also for conservation of natural environment. All countries especially Asian countries are now seeking for the safer chemicals or the more effective methods for termite control. A huge amount of research in recent years has been devoted to termite control technologies to reduce environmental contamination and the risk to human health.
  Intan Ahmad and Suliyat
  The present study was conducted with the aim to develop an easily made fipronil insecticidal gel and test this gel both in the laboratory and in the field. Four gel baits were developed, each having the same amount of fipronil (0.03%) but with different attractants. The attractants were: chicken liver, honey-banana, cow blood and cockroach feces. Laboratory tests showed that 100% mortality was achieved within 36 h with chicken liver, 48 h with honey-banana, 60 h with cow blood and 72 h with cockroach feces, respectively. Statistically, there were no difference between the use of honey-banana and chicken liver as compared to the remaining two. The next test showed that bait containing honey-banana was the most stable gel in terms of consistency and texture. Field trials using honey-banana containing bait was conducted in 16 kitchens, with 2 controls. Throughout the five week trials, the controls received weekly insecticide spraying treatment using cypermethrin. The results showed that the bait was very effective in controlling the population of German cockroach, >90% reduction was achieved after 2 weeks of treatment and 100% reduction was achieved after 5 weeks of treatment, with the initial number of cockroach per kitchen ranging from 41-243.
  Resti Rahayu , Intan Ahmad , Endang Sri Ratna , Marselina I. Tan and Nova Hariani
  Six strains of German cockroach, Blattella germanica, collected from three major cities in Indonesia which are Jakarta, Bandung and Surabaya were bio-assayed with topical application to monitor insecticide resistance to insecticides propoxur, permethrin and fipronil. In general, compared with VCRU susceptible strain as the standard, all cockroach strains were resistant to all insecticides tested, with Resistance Ratios ranging from 2.11-1013.17 fold. Majority of strains exhibited very high resistance (RR50>50) to permethrin; this study also revealed the existence of extremely high resistance to permethrin (RR50 of 1013.17 fold) in HHB-JKT strain. Resistance levels to both propoxur and fipronil is vary (RR50 ranging from 2.11-44.72 fold). But, in general, the field strains are still susceptible to fipronil. This study is the second report of German cockroach resistance to insecticides in Indonesia which suggest the importance of continued monitoring of insecticides susceptibility for controlling the German cockroach, B. germanica. In addition, the findings can be used in formulating potential strategies for cockroach resistance management.
  Eko Kuswanto , Intan Ahmad , Ramadhani E. Putra and Idham S. Harahap
  Factors that cause individuals to recognize nestmates and non-nestmates in the same termite species require ongoing research. Chemical communication between individuals is predicted to be a key factor in the recognition behavior. This study aims to determine the level of aggression intraspecies Macrotermes gilvus and identify chemical components that play a role in influencing the behavior. Agonistic test intra- and intercolony M. gilvus that separated distance far away and a GC-MS analysis to determine of volatile compounds which role communication among individuals M. gilvus have been done. The research results showed that no aggression behavior intraspecies M. gilvus both intra- and intercolony. Agonistic test on three termite colonies M. gilvus from Bandung, Bogor and Bandar Lampung within maximum distance 216 km showed no agonistic. Agonistic level in intracolony only happens antennation or examination, while in intercolony occurs antennation, examination, alarm behavior and avoidance one another. Aggressive behavior (as a marker of agonistic behavior) does not appear both inter- and intracolony. Identification of the volatile compounds that assumed to play a role as, a key of intraspecific colony recognition has been carried out using GC-MS analysis, the results are 22 volatile compounds of caste workers and soldiers (both minor- and major soldier). Two novel volatile compounds has been identified i.e., (Z)-6-octadecenoic acid and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid, respectively, as the key of individuals for recognizing both non- and nestmembers of M. gilvus. Those compounds are species-specific on M. gilvus.
  Kustiati , Marselina I. Tan , Sri Yusmalinar , Trisnowati B. Ambarningrum and Intan Ahmad
  House flies, Musca domestica L. is a major and the most common urban insect pest in Indonesia and is known to have the ability to develop resistance to insecticides. In order to determine the resistance status of this pest to permethrin and imidacloprid, the most commonly used insecticides to control this pest, 32 strains of house flies collected in 2013 and 2014 from 26 capital of provinces in Indonesia were tested. House flies were tested by topical application and feeding bioassay for resistance to permethrin and imidacloprid, respectively. To examine the resistance mechanism to permethrin, the synergist piperonyl butoxide was used. Majority of all strains, 26 of 32 field-collected strains showed very high levels of resistance to permethrin, the range of resistance ratios was 190-25190 fold for permethrin when compared with a susceptible strain. However, a few strains showed no to high levels of resistance to permethrin, with the range ratio was 0.3-143 fold. Meanwhile, for imidacloprid, all strains showed no to very low resistance (resistance ratios of 0.4-6.1 fold). Assay using permethrin in the presence of PBO in 12 of 14 selected strains were found to decrease the LD values, which suggests that the detoxifying enzyme Mixed Function Oxidase (MFO) might have a role in the development of resistance to permethrin. Our study is the first report of house flies resistance throughout much of Indonesia, although all strains were still susceptible to imidacloprid. The findings, together with house flies integrated management, can be used to prevent resistance development in other insecticides.
  Sri Yusmalinar , Tjandra Anggraeni , Kustiati , Indra Wibowo , Ramadhani Eka Putra and Intan Ahmad
  Background and Objective: Application of insecticide is the most common method to reduce housefly populations. However, in general, not all individuals would receive lethal dose of insecticide during a treatment. This condition could produce favorable biological responses, such as increased reproductive ability, known as hormesis. This study was carried out to observe the effect of topical application of sublethal concentrations or dose of imidacloprid and permethrin to reproductive ability of some strains of housefly of Indonesia. Materials and Methods: Sublethal doses tested in this study were 10 and 30% of LD50 or LC50 (equal to LD5 or LC5 and LD15 or LC15, respectively) of permethrin and imidacloprid. Permethrin was applied by topical method while imidacloprid administrated by feeding method. All treatments were replicated 10 times and assessed for 10 generations to evaluate the long term effect. Mortality of each group was analyzed by probit analysis to determine the value of LD50 or LC50. Differences in fecundity and fertility among different generations and strains were analyzed using two way ANOVA, with a significant value p<0.05 Results: Houseflies that received application of LD5 of permethrin increased its fecundity (17.05% more than application of LD15 and 56.39% more than the control) and fertility (26.73% more than application of LD15 and 63.62% more than the control). Application of LC5 of imidacloprid also increased fecundity of housefly (10.46% more than application LC15 and 45.91% more than the control) and the fertility (17.08% more than application LC15 and 49.17% more than the control). Conclusion: Continuous administration of sublethal doses of permethrin and imidacloprid may induce reproductive hormesis in the housefly through increased fecundity and fertility.
  Trisnowati Budi Ambarningrum , Lulu Lusianti Fitri , Edi Basuki , Kustiati Kustiati , Nova Hariani and Intan Ahmad
  Background and Objective: Glucose aversion in German cockroaches Blattella germanica L., which are exposed continuously to glucose-containing baits, is known as a rapid behavioral resistance phenomenon. This study was aimed to detect behavioral development of Glucose aversion in German cockroaches in Indonesia. Materials and Methods: Twenty one strains of German cockroaches collected from 12 provinces in Indonesia from the period of 2007-2011 were used in this study. Each of the collected strains was divided into 2 different groups, where the first one was subjected to three steps of selections, while the second one was unselected. The 1st step of selection was aimed to find individuals that responded negatively to glucose-containing agar. The selected individuals were then subjected to the next selection step i.e., exposure to glucose-containing agar and 0.03% fipronil. The 2nd step of selection was conducted in triplicates with 5 day intervals. The survivors of this step were then raised and designated as parental and filial-1 groups. The 3rd step of selection was exposures of the groups of parental, filial-1 and unselected to maxforce forte 0.05 gel. Results: The results showed that from 21 strains tested, there were 4 strains (JKT-a, JKT-b, BDG-b and PKU-b) to be potent to develop glucose aversion behavior. The highest tolerance to sugar-containing baits was shown by the JKT-b strain. Conclusion: This report resulted the first information on behavioral resistance mechanisms of German cockroaches to glucose in Indonesia that is important as a reference in planning German cockroaches control in Indonesia.
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